1 2016. THE State . OF food AND. Agriculture . CLIMATE change , Agriculture . AND food security . The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO.
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3 And can be purchased through FAO 2016. COVER PHOTOGRAPH FAO/D. Hayduk KIROKA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA. Hand weeding a rice paddy forms part of the System of Rice Intensification method in this climate-smart Agriculture project. ISSN 0081-4539. 2016. THE State . OF food AND. Agriculture CLIMATE change , Agriculture . AND food security . food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, 2016. CONTENTS. FOREWORD v Mitigation and adaptation co-benefits ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS viii that enhance food security 76. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS x Mitigation costs, incentives and barriers 84. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY xi A food system perspective: minimizing losses and waste, promoting sustainable diets 86.
4 CHAPTER 1 Conclusions 87. HUNGER, POVERTY AND CLIMATE change : THE CHALLENGES TODAY AND TOMORROW 1 CHAPTER 5. Key messages 3. THE WAY FORWARD: REALIGNING POLICIES, BUILDING INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY 89. Complex interactions and inextricable links 4. Key messages 91. The urgency of concerted global action now 10. Agriculture now central to intended contributions 92. The special role and responsibility of Agriculture 13. From intentions to action: Agriculture Structure of this report 15. in climate strategies 95. CHAPTER 2 Integrated approaches that align climate CLIMATE, Agriculture AND food security : and development goals 96. A CLOSER LOOK AT THE CONNECTIONS 17 Strengthening regional and international cooperation 100.
5 Key messages 19. Conclusions 103. Cascading impacts from climate to people 20. Impacts on Agriculture 22 CHAPTER 6. Impacts on incomes and livelihoods 29 FINANCING THE WAY FORWARD 105. Millions more at risk of hunger 34 Key messages 107. The Agriculture sectors' role in climate change 38 Climate finance for Agriculture 108. Conclusions 41 Making a little go far: using climate finance strategically 115. CHAPTER 3. Conclusions 119. ADAPTING TO CLIMATE change IN. SMALLHOLDER Agriculture 43. Annex: Data on international public climate finance for Agriculture , forestry and fisheries 120. Key messages 45. Rethinking pathways out of poverty 46 STATISTICAL ANNEX 123.
6 Key vulnerabilities to climate change risks 47 Notes on the annex tables 124. Towards resilient production systems and livelihoods 48 Table Projected changes in crop yields due How much will adaptation cost? 60 to climate change for all locations worldwide 127. Managing the transition Table Net emissions and removals to climate-smart smallholder systems 62 from Agriculture , forests and other land use in Conclusions 66 carbon dioxide equivalent, 2014 134. Table Agricultural emissions in carbon CHAPTER 4. food AND Agriculture SYSTEMS dioxide equivalent by source, 2014 141. IN CLIMATE change MITIGATION 69. Key messages 71. REFERENCES 148. The technical potential for mitigation SPECIAL CHAPTERS OF THE State .
7 With adaptation 72. OF food AND Agriculture 172. | ii |. NOTES BORIA VOLOREIUM, SIT AUT QUIS DOLORITI CONECTUS, SEQUE. TABLES, FIGURES & BOXES. The proportion of undernourished people in the total population is the indicator known as prevalence of undernourishment (PoU). See Annexes 2. and 3 of this report for further details. Ecullentem facerrum quam, quatet occus acepro modit quibus autat laut omnihitias sitat. TABLES 9. Differences in nitrogen use in 6. Projected changes in crop smallholder farming in East Asia yields in developed regions 1. Climate impacts on selected and sub-Saharan Africa 53 owing to climate change 27. crop yields, globally and in tropical 10.
8 Opportunity costs of 7. Impacts of climate change areas, under warming of C. and 2 C above pre-industrial implementing improved grazing on crop yields, area, levels over the 21st century 12. management, Qinghai production, prices and trade Province, China 65 in 2050 at the global level 36. 2. Selected potential impacts 11. Potential for N2O mitigation 8. Impacts of climate change of climate change , by region 24. of annual emissions under five on population at risk of hunger 3. Number of people living scenarios of improved practices, in 2050, by region 36. in extreme poverty in 2030 2030 and 2050. 9. Population at risk of with and without climate change , (cumulative effects) 77.
9 Under different climate and hunger, with and without 12. Examples of agricultural climate change 36. socio-economic scenarios 33. practices leading to reductions 10. food insecurity and climate 4. Changes in agricultural in soil carbon stocks 83. revenues associated with rising change vulnerability: temperatures, in selected areas Present day, worst case and FIGURES. of Latin America 33. best case scenarios 37. 1. Impacts of climate change 11. Annual average net 5. Emissions and removals on cereal yields across regions emissions/removals from of main greenhouse gases, by 2050 7 AFOLU in CO2 equivalent 39. by all sectors and by Agriculture , forestry and land use (AFOLU) 2.
10 Shares of greenhouse gas 12. Net emissions/removals in 2010 39 emissions from economic sectors from AFOLU in CO2 equivalent in 2010 7 in 2014, by region 40. 6. Three main sources of agricultural greenhouse gas 3. Impact pathways: from 13. Share of agricultural emissions in 2014, by region 41 climate change to food security 21 emissions in CO2 equivalent 7. Impact of climate shocks 4. Projected changes in crop in 2014, by source and on agricultural output and yields for all locations at global level 40. productivity 47 worldwide owing to 14. change in 2050 in the climate change 26 number of people at risk of hunger, 8. Impacts on crop yields under different climate effects 5.