1 Ultrathin Hafnium Oxide with Low Leakage and excellent reliability for alternative gate dielectric Application Byoung Hun Lee, Laegu Kang, Wen-Jie Qi, Renee Nieh, Yongjoo Jeon, Katsunori Onishi and Jack Microelectronics Research Center, R9950, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78758. Abstract Experiments and material characterization Physical, electrical and reliability characteristics of ultra Hf02 was deposited directly on p-type silicon substrate thin Hf02 as an alternative gate dielectric were studied for the using two step reactive dc magnetron sputtering. At first, thin first time. Crucial process parameters of oxygen modulated dc Hafnium layer is deposited and annealed in vacuum.
2 Then, thin magnetron sputtering were optimized to achieve an equivalent HfO2 layer was deposited in Ar+Oz ambient. At this step, O2. Oxide thickness(E0T) of 1 without deducting the quantum flow was modulated to control the interface quality and the mechanical effect. Leakage current was 3 ~ 1 0 ~ ~ A /atc m +1V. ~ growth of interfacial layer( ). Hf layer works as an excellent dielectric properties such as high dielectric constant, oxidation barrier during HfOZ deposition. Pt was used as a top low Leakage current, good thermal stability, negligible electrode for metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS). For dispersion and good reliability were demonstrated. comparison, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices were fabricated with Pt and Ir as top and bottom electrode Introduction respectively.
3 Pt was patterned using aqua regia solution (1 HNO3:7 HCl:5H20) at 80 C and the active area for MIS (Pt gate dielectric materials having high dielectric constant, /HfOZ/Si) capacitor was 5 x 1 0 - ~ c m ~ . large band gap with a favorable band alignment, low interface Equivalent Oxide thickness(E0T) was extracted from the state density and good thermal stability are needed for future accumulation capacitance at lMHz and quantum mechanical gate dielectric application. correction was not applied. Leakage current was measured in Unfortunately, many high-k materials such as Ta205, TiOz, +3V range. gate bias was swept from OV to k3V respectively SrTiO3, and BaSrTi03 are thermally unstable when directly for fresh device to reduce the initial stress.
4 reliability contacted with silicon[ 11 and need an additional barrier layer characteristics were studied under negative bias to avoid the which may add process complexity and impose thickness current saturation problem. Various analysis methods such as scaling limit. X P S , XRD, and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to Also, materials having too low or too high dielectric analyze the physical properties of Hf02 films. constant may not be adequate choice for alternative gate Process parameters such as pressure, oxygen flow rate, and dielectric application. Ultra high-k materials such as STO or deposition temperature were optimized for the lowest EOT. BST may cause fringing field induced barrier lowering while maintaining low Leakage current.]
5 Since excessive effect. Materials having relatively low dielectric constant oxidation step causes growth of the interfacial layer and an such as A1203 and Y203 do not provide sufficient advantages increase of EOT( ), the control of oxygen amount is over S i 0 2or Si3N4. critical in this process. Thus, deposition times for Hf(tl) and Among the medium-k materials compatible with silicon, Hf02(t2) need to be optimized( ). The EOT of 45A Hf02. oxides of Zr and Hf are attracting much attention recently. was reduced to by introducing oxygen flow stabilization Especially, Hf forms the most stable Oxide with the highest period(&) to avoid the initial oxygen burst effect( ). The heat of formation(AHf = 27 lKcal/mol) among the elements in EOT of Hf02 film could be further decreased to 11SA when IVA group of the periodic table(Ti,Zr,Hf).
6 Hf can also reduce in-situ post deposition annealing was done in vacuum and Pt the native Si02 layer to form HfO2, Unlike other silicides, the electrode was deposited immediately afterward. If quantum silicide of Hf can be easily oxidized. The dielectric constant mechanical effect is deducted, the EOT of this thin HfO2 is 9A, of HfOz is -30 with the bandgap of . Hf02 is very the smallest value ever reported for Hf02 dielectric . resistive to impurity diffusion and intermixing at the interface When the process was properly optimized, the dielectric because of it's high density ( ). In addition, HfOz is constant of HfO2 layer deposited on silicon approached to the compatible with n+ polysilicon gate without any barrier value obtained at the MIM(Pt/HfOz/Ir) capacitor(-28) and the materials.
7 These properties make Hf02 one of the most contribution of interfacial layer to the EOT was reduced to promising candidates for alternative gate dielectric application. about 6A( ). The effective dielectric constant of MIS. In this paper, we present the process characteristics of capacitor including the interfacial layer varied in the range of reactive dc magnetron sputtering with oxygen modulation and 6-16 depending on the process condition and film thickness. the electrical characteristics and reliability aspects of ultra thin Spectroscopic ellipsometry showed that the thickness of HfO2. interfacial layer is around 20-22A after annealing( ). Thus, .I. 0-7803-5410-9/99/$ 0 1999 IEEE IEDM 99-133.
8 Based on the interfacial layer thickness extrapolated from The breakdown field of HfOz was inversely proportional to and the observed thickness from spectroscopic ellipsometry, the physical thickness and increased to 1 l-l3MV/cm(without the dielectric constant of interfacial layer is found to be around 0 2 stabilization) and -7MV/cm(with 0 2 stabilization) as the This implies that the composition of interfacial layer physical thickness decreased to 40-50&Fig. 16). Lower is rather close to that of Hafnium silicate. breakdown field for HfOz films with thinner interfacial layer The EOT of H f 0 2 was stable up to 700 C and even can be explained using simple series capacitor model[ 10,111.]
9 Decreased for thick film( ). The thinnest sample showed a Since the EOT of interfacial layer can be extrapolated from considerable increase in EOT after furnace annealing in 0 2 . the curve in , the electric field across the HfOz layer and This EOT increase is due to the excessive oxygen diffused into interfacial layer at breakdown can be estimated. Interestingly, the interface through Pt electrode and thin HfOz film because the calculated breakdown field for HfOz layer were all around such EOT increase could be suppressed by post metal rapid 4MV/cm regardless of physical thickness and EOT(Fig. 17). thermal annealing -in nitrogen ambient(data not shown). This value well matches with 2 - reported for thick Thick HfOz (185A) film starts to be crystallized at 700 C CVD HfOz films.
10 This result indicates that the breakdown ( ). Thus, the EOT decrease for thick films appears to be process probably occurs at the HfOZ layer rather than the due to the film densification and crystallization. Although interfacial layer. Also, the model suggests that the reliability of crystallization can increase the Leakage current for some metal HfOz film will converge to that of bulk film as the EOT is oxides[8,9], the Leakage current of HfO2 was actually decreased further reduced by the scaling of interfacial silicate layer. Thus, as the annealing temperature increased. HfOz deposited at for good reliability and interface properties, the presence of room temperature has a slightly oxygen rich composition and minimal interfacial silicate layer is necessary.