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Unix - Tutorials Point

unix i about the Tutorial unix is a computer Operating System which is capable of handling activities from multiple users at the same time. The development of unix started around 1969 at AT&T Bell Labs by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie. This tutorial gives a very good understanding on unix . Audience This tutorial has been prepared for the beginners to help them understand the basics to advanced concepts covering unix commands, unix shell scripting and various utilities. Prerequisites We assume you have adequate exposure to Operating Systems and their functionalities. A basic understanding on various computer concepts will also help you in understanding the various exercises given in this tutorial.

Unix i About the Tutorial Unix is a computer Operating System which is capable of handling activities from multiple users at the same time. The development of Unix started around 1969 at AT&T Bell Labs

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Transcription of Unix - Tutorials Point

1 unix i about the Tutorial unix is a computer Operating System which is capable of handling activities from multiple users at the same time. The development of unix started around 1969 at AT&T Bell Labs by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie. This tutorial gives a very good understanding on unix . Audience This tutorial has been prepared for the beginners to help them understand the basics to advanced concepts covering unix commands, unix shell scripting and various utilities. Prerequisites We assume you have adequate exposure to Operating Systems and their functionalities. A basic understanding on various computer concepts will also help you in understanding the various exercises given in this tutorial.

2 Execute unix Shell Programs If you are willing to learn the unix /Linux basic commands and Shell script but you do not have a setup for the same, then do not worry The CodingGround is available on a high-end dedicated server giving you real programming experience with the comfort of single-click execution. Yes! It is absolutely free and online. Copyright & Disclaimer Copyright 2016 by Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. All the content and graphics published in this e-book are the property of Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. The user of this e-book is prohibited to reuse, retain, copy, distribute or republish any contents or a part of contents of this e-book in any manner without written consent of the publisher.

3 We strive to update the contents of our website and Tutorials as timely and as precisely as possible, however, the contents may contain inaccuracies or errors. Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. provides no guarantee regarding the accuracy, timeliness or completeness of our website or its contents including this tutorial. If you discover any errors on our website or in this tutorial, please notify us at unix ii Table of Contents about the Tutorial .. i Audience .. i Prerequisites .. i Execute unix Shell Programs .. i Copyright & Disclaimer .. i Table of Contents .. ii unix FOR BEGINNERS.

4 1 unix Getting Started .. 2 What is unix ? .. 2 unix 2 unix File Management .. 8 Listing Files .. 8 Metacharacters .. 10 Hidden Files .. 10 Creating Files .. 11 Editing Files .. 11 Display Content of a File .. 12 Counting Words in a File .. 12 Copying Files .. 13 Renaming Files .. 13 Deleting Files .. 13 Standard unix Streams .. 14 unix Directory Management .. 15 Home Directory .. 15 Absolute/Relative Pathnames .. 15 Listing Directories .. 16 Creating Directories .. 16 Creating Parent Directories .. 17 Removing Directories .. 18 Changing Directories .. 18 Renaming Directories .. 18 The directories.

5 (dot) and .. (dot dot) .. 19 unix File Permission / Access Modes .. 20 The Permission Indicators .. 20 File Access Modes .. 20 Directory Access Modes .. 21 Changing Permissions .. 21 Using chmod with Absolute Permissions .. 22 Changing Owners and Groups .. 23 Changing Ownership .. 24 Changing Group Ownership .. 24 SUID and SGID File Permission .. 24 unix iii unix Environment .. 26 The .profile File .. 27 Setting the Terminal Type .. 27 Setting the PATH .. 27 PS1 and PS2 Variables .. 28 Environment Variables .. 30 unix Basic Utilities .. 32 Printing Files .. 32 Sending Email .. 35 unix Pipes and Filters.

6 37 The grep Command .. 37 The Sort Command .. 38 The pg and more Commands .. 39 unix Processes Management .. 41 Starting a Process .. 41 Background Processes .. 42 Listing Running Processes .. 42 Stopping Processes .. 44 Parent and Child Processes .. 44 Zombie and Orphan Processes .. 44 Daemon Processes .. 45 The top Command .. 45 Job ID Versus Process ID .. 45 unix Network Communication Utilities .. 46 The ping Utility .. 46 The ftp Utility .. 47 The telnet Utility .. 49 The finger Utility .. 50 unix The vi Editor .. 52 Starting the vi Editor .. 52 Operation Modes .. 53 Getting Out of vi.

7 53 Moving within a File .. 54 Control Commands .. 56 Editing Files .. 57 Deleting Characters .. 57 Change Commands .. 58 Copy and Paste Commands .. 58 Advanced Commands .. 59 Word and Character 60 Set Commands .. 61 Running Commands .. 62 Replacing Text .. 62 IMPORTANT .. 62 unix iv unix SHELL PROGRAMMING .. 63 unix What is Shell? .. 64 Shell Prompt .. 64 Shell Types .. 64 Shell Scripts .. 65 Example Script .. 65 Shell Comments .. 66 Extended Shell Scripts .. 66 unix Using Shell Variables .. 68 Variable Names .. 68 Defining Variables .. 68 Accessing Values .. 69 Read-only Variables.

8 69 Unsetting Variables .. 70 Variable Types .. 70 unix Special Variables .. 71 Command-Line Arguments .. 72 Special Parameters $* and $@ .. 72 Exit Status .. 73 unix Using Shell Arrays .. 74 Defining Array Values .. 74 Accessing Array Values .. 75 unix Shell Basic Operators .. 77 Arithmetic 77 unix - Shell Arithmetic Operators Example .. 78 Relational Operators .. 80 unix - Shell Relational Operators Example .. 80 Boolean Operators .. 82 unix - Shell Boolean Operators Example .. 82 String Operators .. 84 unix - Shell String Operators Example .. 84 File Test Operators .. 86 unix - Shell File Test Operators Example.

9 87 C Shell Operators .. 89 unix - C Shell Operators .. 89 Korn Shell Operators .. 92 unix - Korn Shell Operators .. 92 unix Shell Decision Making .. 94 The statements .. 94 unix Shell - The statement .. 94 unix Shell - The statement .. 95 unix Shell - The statement .. 96 The Statement .. 97 unix Shell - The Statement .. 98 unix v unix Shell Loop Types .. 101 unix Shell - The while Loop .. 101 unix Shell - The for 102 unix Shell - The until Loop .. 103 unix Shell - The select Loop .. 104 Nesting Loops .. 107 Nesting while 107 unix Shell Loop Control .. 109 The infinite Loop.

10 109 The break statement .. 109 The continue statement .. 111 unix Shell Substitution .. 113 What is Substitution? .. 113 Command Substitution .. 114 Variable Substitution .. 115 unix Shell Quoting Mechanisms .. 117 The Metacharacters .. 117 The Single Quotes .. 118 The Double Quotes .. 119 The Backquotes .. 120 unix Shell Input/Output Redirections .. 121 Output Redirection .. 121 Input Redirection .. 122 Here Document .. 122 Discard the output .. 124 Redirection Commands .. 125 unix Shell Functions .. 126 Creating Functions .. 126 Pass Parameters to a Function .. 127 Returning Values from Functions.


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