1 WORLD CITIES. REPORT 2016. URBANIZATION AND. DEVELOPMENT . Emerging Futures URBANIZATION and DEVELOPMENT : Emerging Futures World Cities Report 2016. First published 2016 by United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN- habitat ). Copyright United Nations Human Settlements Programme, 2016. All rights reserved United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN- habitat ). Box 30030, Nairobi, Kenya Tel: +254 20 7621 234. Fax: +254 20 7624 266/7. Website: DISCLAIMER. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries, or regarding its economic system or degree of DEVELOPMENT . The analysis, conclusions and recommendations of this report do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme or its Governing Council.
2 The Report is produced with official data provided by governments and additional information gathered by the Global Urban Observatory. Cities and countries are invited to update data relevant to them. It is important to acknowledge that data varies according to definition and sources. While UN- habitat checks data provided to the fullest extent possible, the responsibility for the accuracy of the information lies with the original providers of the data. Information contained in this Report is provided without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including, without limitation, warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose and non-infringement. UN- habitat specifically does not make any warranties or representations as to the accuracy or completeness of any such data. Under no circumstances shall UN- habitat be liable for any loss, damage, liability or expense incurred or suffered that is claimed to have resulted from the use of this Report, including, without limitation, any fault, error, omission with respect thereto.
3 The use of this Report is at the User's sole risk. Under no circumstances, including, but not limited to negligence, shall UN- habitat or its affiliates be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special or consequential damages, even if UN- habitat has been advised of the possibility of such damages. HS Number: HS/038/16E. ISBN Number (Series): 978-92-1-133395-4. ISBN Number (Volume): 978-92-1-132708-3. iii WORLD CITIES REPORT 2016. Foreword Ban Ki-moon Secretary-General United Nations Since the 1996 habitat II Conference in Istanbul, the world has faced many opportunity. It takes place as the world embarks on efforts serious challenges, including rising inequality, increasing insecurity in many to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Develop- places and the widening impacts of climate change everywhere. But we have ment, which gives a prominent role to cities.
4 habitat III. also made major advances in medicine, life expectancy, information and com- is expected to discuss and agree on a New Urban Agenda munications technology, governance and human knowledge. On both the posi- aimed at enhancing the contribution of cities to sustain- tive and negative sides of this ledger, cities have been a able DEVELOPMENT , and at ensuring that cities are inclu- primary arena where change takes place. sive, safe, resilient and sustainable. As the world has transformed, so have urban This new World Cities Report presents a areas. Today, cities are home to 54 per cent of the world's number of issues that this New Urban Agenda should population, and by the middle of this century that figure address. I commend its analysis and documentation to a will rise to 66 per cent. While cities face major problems, wide global audience, and encourage all stakeholders to from poverty to pollution, they are also powerhouses of make habitat III a success in pointing the way forward in economic growth and catalysts for inclusion and innova- designing and managing cities so that all their inhabitants tion.
5 With vision, planning and financing, cities can help can enjoy lives of dignity. provide solutions for the world. This year's United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban DEVELOPMENT known as habitat III in Quito, Ecuador, is a timely and important iv WORLD CITIES REPORT 2016. Introduction Joan Clos Under-Secretary-General, United Nations Executive Director, UN- habitat The world has changed remarkably since the habitat II Conference took place governance, finance and learning that can sustain posi- in Istanbul in 1996. Twenty years appears to be a short span of time, but our tive change. The Report unequivocally demonstrates that ideas, practices, modes of production and consumption, demographic struc- the current URBANIZATION model is unsustainable in many tures, as well as education and health conditions have drastically changed.
6 The respects, puts many people at risk, creates unnecessary way cities are shaped, their form and functionality have also been transformed costs, negatively affects the environment, and is intrinsi- over these years. Many of these changes have been for cally unfair. It conveys a clear message that the pattern of the better, but others for the worst. URBANIZATION needs to change in order to better respond The growth of the world's cities, from the north to the challenges of our time, to address issues such as to the south, and from the east to the west, is ingrained in a inequality, climate change, informality, insecurity, and the culture of short-term economic benefit and often unbridled unsustainable forms of urban expansion. consumption and production practices that compromise The habitat Agenda adopted at the United the sustainability of the environment.
7 The causes may vary Nations Conference on Human Settlements ( habitat II). according to different contexts, but uncontrolled growth, in 1996 was influential in the recognition of the right to privatization of public goods, lack of regulations and institu- adequate housing, sustainable human settlements devel- tions as well as forms of collective indolence are often the opment in an urbanizing world, and the increased partici- key factors behind a model of URBANIZATION that is becoming pation of the private sector and non-governmental organi- highly unsustainable. URBANIZATION is at the same time a zations in the URBANIZATION process. It reinforced the role positive force underpinning profound social, political and of local authorities and stirred progress in strengthening economic transformation. fiscal and financial management capacities. However, in URBANIZATION and growth go hand in hand, and general terms, implementation, financing and monitoring no one can deny that URBANIZATION is essential for socio- have remained major challenges.
8 Economic transformation, wealth generation, prosperity The New Urban Agenda that is expected to and DEVELOPMENT . As this Report asserts, the emerging be adopted at the habitat III Conference cannot afford future of cities largely depends on the way we plan and to ignore these shortcomings. It should convey a sense of manage URBANIZATION , and the way we leverage this trans- urgency in the implementation of policies and actions that formative process to provide the setting, the underlying can no longer depend on political schedules or opportun- base and also the momentum for global change'1. istic moments, but should, instead, be set in clear, well- The analysis of urban DEVELOPMENT of the past defined agendas. The New Urban Agenda should adopt a twenty years presented in this first edition of the World city-wide approach to DEVELOPMENT with concrete actions, Cities Report shows, with compelling evidence, that there setting out clear funding mechanisms and effective means are new forms of collaboration and cooperation, planning, of implementation and monitoring.
9 1. United Nations (2013) Sustainable URBANIZATION , thematic think piece prepared for the 2030 DEVELOPMENT agenda, New York. v WORLD CITIES REPORT 2016. habitat III and the New Urban Agenda should that work as a framework for action based on UN-Habi- establish critical connections to the 2030 Agenda for tat's three-pronged approach to planned URBANIZATION an Sustainable DEVELOPMENT and other international agree- effective and enabling legal and institutional environment, ments. The Report is very explicit on the need to ensure improved urban planning and design and vibrant local eco- a strong convergence among these agendas as a way of nomic DEVELOPMENT . complementing and improving the implementation of the Finally, the Report expounds the most impor- Sustainable DEVELOPMENT Goals (SDGs), particularly those tant levers for the transformative change of cities.
10 These with an urban component. include planned city extensions, planned city infills, land The research, data, knowledge, practice and readjustment programmes, basic services and housing experience of UN- habitat has facilitated the production plans and public space planning and regulations. The of this highly informative Report. Its different chapters need to put in place a new global monitoring framework collectively present a path to sustainable urban develop- to assess how countries and cities implement this Agenda ment that the New Urban Agenda must consider. and the urban components of the SDGs is also highlighted A set of principles that guide major shifts in in this Report. strategic and policy thinking are presented to ensure that The success of the New Urban Agenda is about human rights, the rule of law, equitable DEVELOPMENT and values, commitments and collective efforts.