1 Water Quality Guidelines and Effluent Standards and its implementation in the PhilippinesEngr. Erlinda A. GonzalesTechnical OfficerEnvironmental Management Bureau (EMB)Engr. Leonora C. CleofasDeputy Administrator for Engineering and OperationMetropolitan Waterworks and Sewage System (MWSS)Outline of Presentation Overview of the Water Quality Guidelines (WQG) and General Effluent Standards (GES) for Water environment Status of implementation of those Standards Status of Effluent emission load from municipal waste Water in Metro Manila Status of coordination with the plans to develop waste Water treatment system Issues and challenges of the Water environment legislation 2 Overview of the Water Quality Guidelines (WQG) and General Effluent Standards (GES) for Water EnvironmentBasic PolicyThe Basic policy was taken from RA 9275 otherwise known as the Philippine Clean Water Act which declared that the state shall pursue a policy of economic growth in a manner consistent with the protection, preservation and revival of the Quality of fresh, brackish and marine and Coverage of the WQG The WQG applies to all Water bodies in the country (freshwaters, marine waters, and ground Water ) Shall be used for classifying Water bodies Shall be used for determining trends and evaluation of stages of deterioration or enhancement in Water Quality used as basis for taking positive actions in preventing, controlling or abating Water pollution Shall be used in the Designation of Water Quality Management Area (WQMA)4 Scope and Coverage of the GES GES applies to all point sources of pollution, regardless of volume, that discharge to receiving body of Water or land and be used regardless of the industry category.
2 However, Effluent used for irrigation and agricultural purposes shall conform to the guideline set by the Department of Agriculture for the safe re-use of wastewater for the purposes of irrigation an other agricultural and Coverage of the GES The GES established the Significant Effluent Quality Parameters per sector ( industries shall only be required to monitor Effluent Quality parameters determined significant to them In consideration for establishments with influent BOD greater than or equal to 3000 mg/l, separate Effluent Standards were set but applicable only for establishments discharging to Class S, Class D, Class SC and Class SD Water of WQG and GES Modification can be requested as long as a clear and scientifically valid evidence to demonstrate that such modification is consistent with RA 9275 and Implementing Rules and Regulations is provided: Designated Uses WQG Values Significant Effluent Water Quality Parameters per Sector and GES Values7 Grace Period Consistent with the Clean Water Act, a grace period of not more than five (5) years is provided in cases wherein: Values for GES have become stringent compared to the values in DAO 1990-35 ( the amended Effluent Standards ) In such cases DAO 1990-35 shall apply during the grace period Grace period can only be given to establishments that submit Compliance Action Plan and periodic status of implementation to the DENR on the steps taken for the establishments compliance schedule within the prescribed grace , Damages and Penalties Fines of 10,000 200,000 Php for every day of violation; upon PAB recommendation (rates to be increased 10% every 2 years); Closure, suspension of development or construction or cessation of operations, upon PAB recommendation; 2 to 4 yr imprisonment for failure to clean up & 50,000 100,000 for every day of violation.)
3 9 Water Body Classification and Usage of freshwaterClassificationIntended Beneficial useClass AA Public Water Supply Class I. Intended primarily for waters having watersheds, which are uninhabited and/or otherwise declared as protected areas, and which require only approved disinfection to meet the latest PNSDWC lass A Public Water Supply Class II. Intended as sources of Water supply that will requiring conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection) in order to meet the B Recreational Water Class I. Intended for primary contact recreation (bathing, swimming, etc.) Class C 1) Fishery Water for the propagation and growth of fish and other aquatic resources;2) Recreational Water Class II- For boating, fishing or similar activities 3) For agriculture, irrigation, and livestock wateringClass D Navigable Waters 10 Water body Classification and Usage of Marine WatersClassificationIntended Beneficial useClass SA 1) Protected Waters- Waters designated as national or local marine parks, reserves, sanctuaries, and other areas established by law (presidential Proclamation 1801 and other existing laws) and/or declared as such by appropriate government agency, LGUs, ) Fishery Water Class 1 Suitable for shellfish harvesting for direct human SB 1) Fishery Water Class 11- Water suitable for commercial propagation of shellfish and intended as spawning areas for milkfish (Chanos chanos) and simmila species2) Tourism Zones For ecotourism and recreational activities3) Recreational Water Class I Intended for primary contact recreation (bathing, swimming, skin diving, etc)
4 11 ClassificationIntended Beneficial useClass SC 1) Fishery Water Class 1II -( For the propagation and growth of fish and other aquatic resources and intended for Commercial and sustenance fishing2) Recreational Water Class 11- For boating. Fishing, or similar activities3) Marshy and /or mangrove areas declared as fish and wildlife sanctuariesClass SD Navigable WatersWater body Classification and Usage of Marine Waters12 Water Quality Guidelines for Primary Parameters ParameterUnitAAABCDBODmg/L135715 Chloride mg/L250250250350400 ColorTCU5505075150 Dissolved Oxygen (Minimun)mg/L55552 Fecal ColiformMPN/100ml< < as NO3-Nmg/L777715pH(Range) mg/L< Suspended Solidsmg/L25506580110 Oil and greasemg/L<1112513 Water Quality Guidelines for Primary Parameters ParameterUnitBODmg/LChloride mg/LColorTCUD issolved Oxygen (Minimun)mg/LFecal ColiformMPN/100mlNitrate as NO3-Nmg/LpH(Range)Phospate mg/LTemperatureCTotal Suspended Solidsmg/LOil and greasemg/LSASBSCSDn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an /a550751506652< 25-32255080110123514 Effluent Standards ParameterUnitAAABCDA mmonia as NH3- mg/L NDA2224 Nitrate as NO3-Nmg/LNDA14141430pH(Range)
5 Mg/LNDA11110 Surfactants (MBAS)mg/LNDA231530 Total Suspended Solidsmg/LNDA7085100150 Oil and Greasemg/LNDA5551515 Effluent Standards ParameterUnitSASBSCSDA mmonia as NH3- mg/L NDA336 Nitrate as NO3-Nmg/LNDA202030pH(Range) mg/LNDA1110 Surfactants (MBAS)mg/LNDA31530 Total Suspended Solidsmg/LNDA70100150 Oil and Greasemg/LNDA5101516 Status of implementation of the WQG and GESA ctivities Undertaken: Classification of Water bodies Determine trends and stages of deterioration of Water Quality Designation of Water Quality management area As basis for taking positive actions to prevent, control and abate Water of Water BodiesClassified Water Bodies by RegionRegionPrincipal RiverOther RiversMarine WatersLakesTotal114101025226230049316434 0634A262912584B3025161725292374636312515 0717191410043823279160917273047101229114 311171540361214266248 CAR11280140 CARAGA19116137 NCR23106 Total306358841376118 Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment From 2006 to 2015, EMB monitored 164 Water bodies, comprising principal rivers, minor rivers, lakes and marine waters based on the set beneficial of Bathing Beaches of Manila Bay Nineteen (19) bathing beaches inManila Bay were monitored for Totaland Fecal Coliform, DO, pH and TSS Out of the nineteen (19) stationsmonitored only two passed the SBcriteria of 1000 mpn/100 ml fortotal coliform For fecal coliform, only one (1)
6 Station passed the criteria of 200mpn/100 ml Ten (10) stations passed the criteriaof 5 mg/L for DO while fourteen (14)stations for pH and ten (10) stationspassed the Water Quality criteria Quality Monitoring20 Baywide Monitoring (Offshore) Nine (9) stations baywide in ManilaBay were monitored for DO, pH,Salinity, Temperature, Conductivity,Phosphate and Heavy Metals. A decreasing trend of DissolveOxygen (DO) from top to bottomwas observed in all stations. Surface DO conformed with thecriteria of 5mg/L in all stationswhile only 8 stations conformed atmid depth and only 1 stationpassed the DO criteria at thebottom. For TSS and Phosphate, all stationspassed the criteria. High levels of pH ranging from were observed in the Quality Monitoring21 River Water Quality Monitoring Selected river systemsin the Manila BayRegion (Region 4 A,NCR and Region 3)discharging into ManilaBay were monitored todeterminetheircompliance with thewater Quality showing the selected riversystem draining into Manila BayWater Quality Monitoring22 Pasig River Unified Monitoring SystemFourteen (14) stations in Pasig riverwere monitored for DO and of the 14 stations monitoredonly one (1) stations passed theDO criteria of 5 mg/L for Class stations failed the BOD criteriaof 7 mg/L.
7 23 Result of Pasig River Water QualityMonitoring CY 2015 STATIONSPARAMETERSDO, mg/LBOD, mg/LC6 Ferry Water Quality CRITERIA5 mg/L10 mg/L24 Para aque River System Ten (10) stations were monitored forDO, BOD, TSS, Phosphate and Nitrate DO All Stations Failed (Criteria: 5mg/L) BOD All Stations Failed (Criteria: 7(10) mg/L) TSS 5 Stations Passed (Criteria: 50mg/L) Phosphate All Stations Failed(Criteria: mg/L) Nitrate 7 Stations Passed (Criteria:10 mg/L)Map of Para aque River SystemWater Quality Monitoring25 Navotas Malabon Tullahan Tenejeros River System Nine (9) stations were monitoredfor DO, BOD, TSS, Phosphate andNitrate DO All Stations Failed (Criteria: 5mg/L) BOD All Stations Failed (Criteria:7 (10) mg/L) TSS All Stations Passed (Criteria:50 mg/L) Phosphate All Stations Failed(Criteria: mg/L) Nitrate 7 Stations Passed(Criteria: 10 mg/L)Map of Navotas Malabon Tullahan TenejerosRiverSystemWater Quality Monitoring26 Meycauayan Valenzuela River System Six (6) stations were monitoredfor DO, BOD, TSS, Phosphate andNitrate DO All Stations Failed (Criteria:5 mg/L) BOD All Stations Failed(Criteria: 7 (10) mg/L) TSS 4 Stations Passed (Criteria:50 mg/L) Phosphate All Stations Failed(Criteria: mg/L) Nitrate 4 Stations Passed(Criteria: 10 mg/L)Map of Meycauayan ValenzuelaRiver SystemWater Quality Monitoring27 Imus River System Eight (8) stations were monitored for DO, BOD, TSS and Phosphate DO 4 Stations Passed (Criteria: 5 mg/L) BOD 3 Stations Passed (Criteria: 7 (10) mg/L) TSS 7 Stations Passed (Criteria: 50 mg/L) Phosphate All Stations Failed (Criteria: mg/L)Map of Imus River SystemWater Quality Monitoring28 Rio Grande River System Five (5) stations were monitored for DO, BOD, TSS and Phosphate DO 3 Stations Passed (Criteria.)
8 5 mg/L) BOD 3 Stations Passed (Criteria: 7 (10) mg/L) TSS All Stations Passed (Criteria: 50 mg/L) Phosphate 1 Station Failed (Criteria: mg/L)Map of Rio Grande River SystemWater Quality Monitoring29 River Water Quality Monitoring in Region III Table 1. Results of Water Quality monitoring in Region IIIRIVERS MONITOREDN umber of Stations MonitoredDO (5mg/L)BOD (10mg/L) Nitrate (10mg/L)(Applicable to Lakes and reservoirs)Talisay River3 All stations failedAll stations passedAll stations passedAngat River4 All stations failedAll stations passedAll stations passedSta. Maria River3 All stations failed All stations failedAll stations passedObando River3 All stations failed All stations failedAll stations passedMarilao River5 All stations failed All stations failedAll stations passedBocaue River3 All stations failed All stations failedAll stations passedMeycauayan River5 All stations failed All stations failedAll stations passedGuagua River3 All stations failed All stations failedAll stations passedPampanga River5 All stations failedAll stations passedAll stations passedTotal 3430 Designation of Water Quality Management Area (WQMA) Water Quality Management Area is defined as an area designated using appropriate physiographic units (watershed, river basin or Water resources regions) sharing common interest or face similar development programs, prospect or problems.
9 Designation of WQMA empowered the local stakeholders to institute measures and identify programs to effectively manage the Water bodies in their respective area. Governing Board (GB) was created to develop strategies to coordinate policies, regulations and local legislation necessary for the effective implementation of the Clean Water Act As of 2016, EMB has Designated 31 Water Quality management area all over the Number of Establishments monitored within the Manila Bay Region from CY 2011 2015 RegionsUniverse/ Baseline9,60020112012201320142015 TotalNCR3,8007307389863775233354 RIII3,8007151158457396293041 RIV A2,0006331326764614922394 TOTAL9,6002,0789852,5071,57716448791 Industrial/Commercial Monitoring32 Regions 2011 2012 2013 20142015 Total number of establishment with discharge permitTotal number establishment monitored% Establishments Monitored in Compliance with the Effluent / Commercial Establishments withinthe Manila Bay Region with Discharge Permitfrom2011 201533 Total BOD Loading ( kg/day)
10 Of the Establishments Monitored from 2011 2015 Manila Bay RegionTotal Number Establishment Monitored20112012201320142015 Total BOD Loading (kg/day) of Establishmentsmonitored with DP from2011 2015 Manila Bay RegionTotal Number of Industries with DP2011 BOD Load2012 BOD load2013 BOD load2014 BOD load2015 BOD loadTotalBOD , Sewage Generation and Pollution Load in Metro Manila36 Status of Effluent Emission Load from Municipal Water37 Characteristics of Raw Domestic SewageParameterCentral Manila1 Cavite2 Valenzuela 3 Quezon City East4 San Mateo52004 Master Plan6 BOD5 (mg/l)42-27338-132123-4545-256-21150-350 COD (mg/l)56-27697-219212-100420-4313-51300- 700 TSS (mg/l)15-897-3525-10068-13038-15150-150T N (mg/l)14-8111-4010-1444-3617-9350-60TP (mg/l) (mg/l) & G (mg/l) (mg/l) (MPN/100ml)3x106- 16x1063x106- 16x1063x106- 16x106---FecalColiform(MPN/100ml)2x106- , Sewage Generation and BOD Loading (East Sector)YearPopulationTotal (cmd)BOD Loading (kg BOD/day)BOD Loading Treated by STP% Actual Target20136,848,1611,193, , , %20146,947,0791,214, , , %20157,047,5341,263, , , %20167,132,1621,472, , , %Sewage, Sewage Generat