1 WHITE . PAPER . TRANSFORMER PROTECTION. The Importance of Effective Transformer and Control Transformer Protection Transformer Protection Basics OVERVIEW. Introduction The importance of effective transformer and control and equipment experiencing continuous or sustained transformer protection cannot be over emphasized. After overloads before overheating occurs. Even moderate motors, transformers are typically the second most common insulation overheating can seriously reduce the life of the application where proper overcurrent protection is required components and/or equipment involved. For example in the and utilized to provide the necessary protection to facilities, case of motors, a single motor overloaded by just 15% may electrical systems, equipment, and most importantly experience less than 50% of its normal insulation life.
2 Electrical workers and other involved personnel. Temporary overloads occur frequently. Common causes As a result, it is vitally important that there is at least a include temporary equipment overloads such as a machine basic understanding of how transformers and their related tool taking too deep of a cut, or simply the starting of electrical systems can be properly protected. The purpose an inductive load such as a motor or transformer. Since of this WHITE PAPER is to provide a more detailed discussion temporary overloads are by definition harmless, overcurrent of the factors which must be considered when properly protective devices should not open or clear the circuit.
3 Selecting and applying low voltage fuses and medium It is important to realize that fuses selected must have voltage fuses in electrical systems. sufficient time-delay to allow transformers to start and Descriptions, ratings, and application temporary overloads to subside. However, should the data for Littelfuse POWR-GARD low overcurrent continue, fuses must then open before system voltage and medium voltage fuses are components on the primary or secondary sides of the located in the corresponding sections transformer are damaged. Littelfuse POWR-PRO and of the Littelfuse POWR-GARD Catalog. POWR-GARD time-delay fuses are designed to meet these To download a copy visit types of protective needs.
4 In general, time-delay fuses hold 500% of the rated current for a minimum of ten seconds, yet For questions, contact our Technical will still provide short-circuit protection by opening quickly on Support and Engineering Services Group at 800-TEC-FUSE higher values of current. (800-832-3873). Definitions of terms used in this WHITE PAPER POWR-PRO time-delay fuses such as the FLSR_ID, LLSRK_. can be found in the Technical Application Guide section of ID, IDSR, or JTD_ID series have sufficient time-delay to the POWR-GARD Catalog. permit transformers to perform when the fuses are properly selected in accordance with the NEC.
5 Overcurrent Protection Fundamentals Fusing Control transformers Before we go further, let's briefly review some overcurrent With one exception, control transformers are protected the protection basics and touch on the types of fuses typically same as regular transformers as discussed below. Control used to protect the transformers and control transformers transformers with primary current less than 2 amperes installed within electrical systems. and that are part of a UL Listed motor controller may have Overcurrent Types and Effects primary fusing not greater than 500% of rated primary An overcurrent is any current that exceeds the ampere current.
6 Rating of conductors, equipment, or devices under conditions of use. The term overcurrent includes both overloads and short-circuits. For transformer protection, we'll just discuss overloads. Transformer Protection for Low Voltage Applications (600 Volts and below). Overloads Generally speaking, it is helpful to look at the different types An overload is an overcurrent confined to normal current of applications and corresponding requirements where paths in which there is no insulation breakdown. low voltage fuses are used to protect the primary and/or Sustained overloads are commonly caused by installing secondary sides of transformers and control transformers .
7 Excessive equipment such as additional lighting fixtures Note that in all of the below Transformer Protection Tables, or too many motors. Sustained overloads are also caused the percentages indicated represent the maximum fuse by overloading mechanical equipment and by equipment rating recommended. breakdown such as failed bearings. If not disconnected transformers Over 600 Volts within established time limits, sustained overloads The basic rule for transformers rated over 600 volts eventually overheat circuit components, causing thermal requires them to have primary and secondary protection damage to insulation and other system components.
8 In accordance with Table 1. Overcurrent protective devices must disconnect circuits 2010 Littelfuse POWR-GARD Products 2 Transformer Protection Basics Table 1 : Fuses for transformers over 600 volts For more specific sizing recommendations, refer to Tables Maximum Fuse Rating in Percent 4 and 5 for Class J fuse protection and Tables 6 and 7 for of Transformer Rated Current Class CC fuse protection. Transformer Primary Secondary Fuse Rating Rated Fuse Rating 600 volts 600 volts Table 4 shows recommended Class J fuse ratings Impedance Over for standard transformers below 600 Volts without Over 600 or less in or less in 600 volts in Volts unsupervised supervised secondary protection, while Table 5 shows the similar all locations locations locations recommendations in applications with secondary protection.
9 Not more than 300% 250% 125% 250%. 6% Table 4: More than 6% lass J Fuse Protection Of Standard transformers Without Secondary C. and not more 300% 225% 125% 250% Protection 230, 460, 575 Volts Single-Phase than 10%. NEC and UL Maximum Allowable Fusing (amps) With Only Primary Protection 1. Littelfuse IDSR, LLNRK/LLSRK/LLSRK_ID, FLNR_ID/FLSR_ID, and JTD_ID series 230 Volts 460 Volts 575 Volts time-delay fuses may be rated at 125% of transformer secondary current. Single-Phase Single-Phase Single-Phase 2. Where the required fuse rating does not cor re spond to a standard fuse rating, Primary JTD or Primary JTD or Primary JTD or the next higher standard rating is permitted.
10 Transformer Current JTD_ID Current JTD_ID Current JTD_ID. 3. An individual primary fuse is not required if the primary circuit fuse is not kVA. (A) Series (A) Series (A) Series greater than 300% of transformer primary current. 1-1/2 8/10 KLDR 3/4*. 4 2 1-1/2. transformers Rated 600 Volts and Less 3 3 2-1/2. 5 4 3. UL Industrial Control Standards (No. 508) and Motor 6 3 5. Control Center Standards (No. 845) specify control power 10 5 4. transformer protection corresponding to NEC Article 12 6 5. (C). In addition, UL requires the primary of control 15 8 6. power transformers used in controllers having short-circuit 17-1/2 10 8.