1 CHEMISTRY REVISION GUIDE . for CIE IGCSE Coordinated Science (2012 Syllabus). This REVISION GUIDE is designed to help you study for the Some very useful websites to help you further your CHEMISTRY part of the IGCSE Coordinated Science course. understanding include: - whilst not the The GUIDE contains everything that the syllabus says you prettiest site this contains a lot of very useful and need you need to know, and nothing extra. nicely explained information. The material that is in the supplementary part of the e/ - well presented with many clear diagrams, course (which can be ignored by core candidates) is animations and quizzes.
2 Can occasionally lack highlighted in dashed boxes: depth. - whilst mostly targeted at A-Levels this site contains very detailed information suitable for those looking to deepen their knowledge and hit the highest grades. Whilst this GUIDE is intended to help with your REVISION , it should not be your only REVISION . It is intended as a Finally, remember REVISION is not just reading but should starting point but only a starting point. You should make be an active process and could involve: sure that you also read your text books and use the Making notes internet to supplement your study in conjunction with Condensing class notes your syllabus document.
3 Drawing Mind-maps Practicing past exam questions Whilst this GUIDE does contain the entire syllabus, it just Making flashcards has the bare minimum and is not in itself sufficient for The golden rule is that what makes you think makes you those candidates aiming for the highest grades. If that is learn. you, you should make sure you read around a range of sources to get a deeper knowledge and understanding. Happy studying, Mr Field. C1: THE PARTICULATE NATURE OF. MATTER Solids, Liquids and Atom: The smallest particle An atom: of matter Some atoms: Gases Molecule: A small particle Molecules of an element: Molecules of a made from more than one compound: atom bonded together Element: A substance A solid element: A gaseous element: SOLIDS LIQUIDS AND GASES.
4 Made of only one type of The particles in solids, liquids and gases are held near to each other by forces of atom attraction. The strength of these forces determines a substance's melting and boiling points. In a solid, the forces of attraction are strongest, holding the particles tightly in Compound: A substance A solid compound A gaseous compound: position. As the solid is heated, and the particles vibrate faster, these forces are made from two or more partially overcome allowing the particles to move freely as a liquid this is called different elements bonded melting.
5 As the liquid is heated more, the particles gain so much energy that the together forces of attraction break completely allowing particles to fly around' as a gas . this is called boiling. The reverse of the these processes are condensing and freezing. Under specific conditions, some solids can turn straight to gases a process called subliming (the reverse is called desubliming). PROPERTIES. Mixture: A substance A mixture of compounds and elements: Solids Liquids Gases made from two or more Have a fixed shape Take the shape of their Take the shape of their elements or compounds Can't be compressed container container mixed but not joined Particles close together Can't be compressed Can be compressed in a regular pattern Particles close together Particles widely spaced Particles vibrate around but disordered in random order a fixed point Particles move freely Particles moving very fast.
6 PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY best possible separation of spots. C2: EXPERIMENTAL Paper chromatography is a technique that can be used to separate mixtures of dyes or pigments and TECHNIQUES is used to test the purity of a mixture or to see what it contains. Firstly a very strong solution of the mixture is prepared which is used to build up a FILTRATION. small intense spot on a piece of absorbent paper. Used to separate solids This is then placed in a jar of solvent (with a lid). As from liquids. The mixture the solvent soaks up the paper, it dissolves the is poured through a filter mixture-spot, causing it to move up the paper with paper in a funnel.
7 The the solvent. However since compounds have liquid can pass through different levels of solubility, they move up the the small holes in the paper at different speeds causing the individual filter paper (to become components to separate out. The solvent or the filtrate) and the solid combination of solvents can be changed to get the gets left behind (called the residue). PURITY FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION. It is important for chemists to be able to purify the When the liquids being distilled have similar CRYSTALLISATION compounds they make, this is because the boiling points, normal distillation can't separate Crystallisation is used to separate mixtures of solid dissolved in impurities could be dangerous or just un-useful.
8 Them completely but simply gives a purer liquid and relies on the fact that solids are more soluble at This is especially true for chemists making mixture. In this case a fractionating column is higher temperatures. A solution containing a solid is cooled compounds that are consumed by people such as used. This provides a large surface area for down until crystals form in the solution, these can then be drugs or food additives since the impurities may be condensation meaning much purer fractions' are collected by filtration. toxic which would be very bad news!
9 Produced. The most important use of this is separating crude oil into it's useful components. The related technique of recrystallisation can be used to WHICH TECHNIQUE? separate a mixture of two soluble solids by taking advantage of You need to be able to select appropriate methods the difference in their solubility. The mixture is dissolved in the to separate a given mixture. The key to this is look smallest possible amount of hot solvent. As the solution cools, for differences in the properties of the the less soluble compound forms crystals that can be collected components of the mixture such as their state, by filtration whilst the more soluble compound stays dissolved.
10 Solubility, melting/boiling point and so on. Then pick the method that best takes advantage of this DISTILLATION difference. In distillation a mixture of liquids is separated using the MELTING/BOILING POINTS. differences in their boiling No two substances have the exact same melting points. The mixture is heated and boiling points. We can take advantage of this until the liquid with the lowest to test the purity of a compound we have made. If boiling point boils, the vapours we know what the melting or boiling point of the then condense on the cold pure compound should be, we can then measure surface of the condenser and the melting or boiling point of a sample we have the pure(er) liquid is collected.