1 COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS The Basics with Applications McGraw-Hill Series in Mechanical Engineering Consulting Editors Jack P. Holman, Southern Methodist University John R. Lloyd, Michigan State University Anderson: COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS : The Basics with Applications Anderson: Modern Compressible Flow: With Historical Perspective Arora: Introduction to Optimum Design Bray and Stanley: Nondestructive Evaluation: A Tool for Design, Manufacturing, and Service Burton: Introduction to Dynamic Systems Analysis Culp: Principles of Energy Conversion Dally: Packaging of Electronic Systems: A Mechanical Engineering Approach Dieter: Engineering Design: A Materials and Processing Approach Driels: linear Control Systems Engineering Eckert and Drake: Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer Edwards and McKee: Fundamentals of Mechanical Component Design Gebhart.
2 Heat Conduction and Mass Diffusion Gibson: Pn"nciples of Composite Material Mechanics Hamrock: Fundamentals of FLUID Film Lubrication Heywood: Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals Hinze: Turbulence Holman: Experimental Methods for Engineers Howell and Buckius: Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics Hutton: Applied Mechanical Vibrations Juvinall: Engineering Considerations of Stress, Strain, and Strength Kane and Levinson: DYNAMICS : Theory and Applications Kays and Crawford: Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Kelly: Fundamentals of Mechanical Vibrations Kimbrell: Kinematics Analysis and Synthesis Kreider and Rabi: Heating and Cooling of Buildings Martin: Kinematics and DYNAMICS of Machines Modest: Radiative Heat Transfer Norton: Design of Machinery Phelan: Fundamentals of Mechanical Design Raven: Automatic Control Engineering Reddy: An Introduction to the Finite Element Method Rosenberg and Karnopp: Introduction to Physical Systems DYNAMICS Schlichting: Boundary-Layer Theory Shames: Mechanics of Fluids Sherman: Viscous Flow Shigley: Kinematic Analysis of Mechanisms Sh!
3 Gley and Mischke: Mechanical Engineering Design Shigley and Dicker: Theory of Machines and '"e h . Stirn D 1n, C amsms er. es1gn with Microprocessors for Mechanical Engineers Stoecker and Jones: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Ullman: The Mechanical Design Process Vanderplaats: N_umerical Optimization: Techniques for Engineering D . with Applications esign, Wa~k: A~vanced Thermodynamics for Engineers White: Viscous FLUID Flow Zeid: CAD/CAM Theory and Practice McGraw-Hill Series in Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering Consulting Editor John D. Anderson, Jr., University of Maryland Anderson: COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS : The Basics with A l" . Anderson: Fundamentals of Aerodynamics PP icattons Anderson: Hypersonic and High Temneratur,e Gas Dy.
4 A d .. r nam1cs n erson. Introduction to Flight :nderson: Modern Compressible Flow: With Historical Perspective Urton: Introduction to Dynamic Sustems An l . D' Azzo .. J' a ys1s and Houp1s: Linear Control System Analysis and D . D?naldson: Analysis of Aircraft Structures: An Introduction es1gn Gibson: Principles of Composite Material Me h . Ka L"ki c amcs ne, I ns, and Levinson: Spacecraft DYNAMICS Katz and Plotkin: Low-Speed Aerodynamics From Nelson: Flight Stability and Automatic Con~/ Wing Theory to Panel Methods Peery and Azar: Aircraft Structures Rivello: Theory and Analysis o Fliuht Structu s hli h 'J o res c . c ting: Boundary Layer Theory White: Viscous FLUID Flow Wiesel: Spaceflight DYNAMICS Also Available from McGraw-Hill schaum 's outline Series in Mechanical Engineering Most outlines include basic theory, definitions and hundreds of example problems solved in step-by-step detail, and supplementary problems with answers.
5 Related titles on the current list include: Acoustics Continuum Mechanics Engineering Economics Engineering Mechanics FLUID DYNAMICS FLUID Mechanics & Hydraulics Heat Transfer Lagrangian DYNAMICS Machine Design Mathematical Handbook of Formulas & Tables Mechanical Vibrations Operations Research Statics & Mechanics of Materials Strength of Materials Theoretical Mechanics Thermodynamics for Engineers Thermodynamics with Chemical Applications schaum 's Solved Problems Books Each title in this series is a complete and expert source of solved problems with solutions worked out in step-by-step detail. Related titles on the current list include: 3000 Solved Problems in Calculus 2500 Solved Problems in Differential Equations 2500 Solved Problems in FLUID Mechanics & Hydraulics 1000 Solved Problems in Heat Transfer 3000 Solved Problems in Linear Algebra 2000 Solved Problems in Mechanical Engineering Thermodynamics 2000 Solved Problems in Numerical Analysis 700 Solved Problems in Vector Mechanics for Engineers: DYNAMICS 800 Solved Problems in Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Available at most college bookstores, or for a complete list of titles and prices, write to: schaum Division McGraw-Hill, Inc.
6 1221 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS The Basics with Applications John D. Anderson, Jr. Department of Aerospace Engineering University of Maryland McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York St. Louis San Francisco Auckland Bogota Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi San Juan Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS The Basics with Applications International Editions 1995 Exclusive rights by McGraw-Hill Book Co. - Singapore for manufacture and export. This book cannot be re-exported from the country to which it is consigned by McGraw-Hill. Copyright 1995 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
7 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 BJE FC 9 8 7 6 This book was set in Times Roman. The editors were John J. Corrigan and Eleanor Castellano; the production supervisor was Denise L. Puryear. The cover was designed by Rafael Hernandez. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Anderson, John David. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS : Basics with applications I John D. Anderson, Jr. p. cm. - (McGraw-Hill series in mechanical engineering-McGraw-Hill series in aeronautical and aerospace engineering) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-07-001685-2 I. FLUID DYNAMICS -Data processing. I. Title. II. Series. QA9 II .A58 1995 532'.05'0 I 5 II 8-dc20 94-21237 When ordering this title, use ISBN 0-07-11321()-4 Printed in Singapore ABOUT THE AUTHOR John D.
8 Anderson, Jr., was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, on October 1, 1937. He attended the University of Florida, graduating in 1959 with high honors and a Bachelor of Aeronautical Engineering Degree. From 1959 to 1962, he was a lieutenant and task scientist at the Aerospace Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. From 1962 to 1966, he attended the Ohio State University under the National Science Foundation and NASA Fellowships, graduating with a in aeronautical and astronautical engineering. In 1966 he joined the Naval Ordnance Laboratory as Chief of the Hypersonic Group. In 1973, he became Chairman of the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland. and since 1980 has been professor of Aerospace Engineering at Maryland.
9 In 1982, he was designated a Distinguished Scholar/Teacher by the University. During 1986-1987, while on sabbatical from the university, Dr. Anderson occupied the Charles Lindbergh chair at the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. He continues with the Museum in a part-time appointment as special assistant for aerodynamics. In addition to his appoint-ment in aerospace engineering, in 1993 he was elected to the faculty of the Committee on the History and Philosophy of Science at Maryland. Dr. Anderson has published five books: Gasdynamic Lasers: An Introduction, Academic Press (1976), and with McGraw-Hill, Introduction to Flight, 3d edition (1989), Modern Compressible Flow, 2d Edition (1990), Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, 2d edition (1991 ), and Hypersonic and High Temperature Gas DYNAMICS ( 1989).
10 He is the author of over 100 papers on radiative gasdynamics, re-entry aerothermodynamics, gas dynamic and chemical lasers, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS , applied aerodynamics, hypersonic flow, and the history of aerodynamics. Dr. Anderson is in Who s Who in America, and is a Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). He is also a Fellow of the Washington Academy of Sciences, and a member of Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Tau, Phi Kappa Phi, Phi Eta Sigma, The American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), The Society for the History of Technology, and the History of Science Society. He has received the Lee Atwood Award for excellence in Aerospace Engineering Education from the AIAA and the ASEE.