1 DISABILITY ISSUES, TRENDS AND. recommendations FOR THE WORLD BANK. (FULL TEXT AND ANNEXES). ROBERT L. METTS, FEBRUARY, 2000. The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the author and should not be attributed in any manner to the World Bank, to its affiliated organizations, to members of its Board of Executive Directors, or to the countries they represent. Please send any comments to Robert L. Metts ABSTRACT. This paper is intended to provide the World Bank with the information and insights necessary for policy formulation and strategic planning in the area of DISABILITY .
2 After describing the two major contemporary DISABILITY definitions and comparing their suitability for DISABILITY policy and planning, the paper presents a descriptive analysis of the evolution and current status of DISABILITY policy and practice. Based on this information, a political and economic case is made in favor of investing public and private resources, including World Bank resources, in policies and strategies designed to increase access for people with disabilities to social and economic opportunities. The essential elements of such policies and strategies are then described and incorporated into a strategic framework for possible use by the World Bank in its ongoing effort to develop appropriate and cost-effective approaches to DISABILITY .
3 Ii CONTENTS. ABSTRACT .. ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..v EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .. viii I. DISABILITY DEFINITIONS AND STATISTICS ..1. THE ASCENDANCY OF THE ICIDH AND THE CURRENT STATUS OF DISABILITY STATISTICS ..4. Population Size Estimates of GDP Lost Due to DISABILITY ..5. Geographic DISABILITY and Age ..7. DISABILITY and II. THE EVOLUTION OF DISABILITY CUSTODIAL CARE AND SPECIAL EDUCATION ..9. EARLY EMPLOYMENT STRATEGIES ..10. Quota and Quota Levy Vocational Training and Rehabilitation Strategies ..11. Protected Employment and State Authorized Disabled-Run Enterprises.
4 12. ACCESSIBILITY III. DISABILITY POLICY TODAY ..15. UNITED NATIONS DISABILITY EUROPEAN UNION DISABILITY NATIONAL DISABILITY POLICIES ..20. IV. CURRENT DISABILITY TRENDS AND EMPLOYMENT ..26. EDUCATION ..28. ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN ..30. Universal Design ..30. South African Case Studies ..32. V. POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR THE INTERNATIONAL THE ROLE OF LARGE INTERNATIONAL THE ROLE OF THE WORLD Changing Operational Lending Initiatives ..42. Non-Lending Activities ..43. iii ANNEXES. A THE DISABILITY ADJUSTED LIFE B ICIDH-2 BETA DRAFT, TWO LEVEL C NATIONAL AND GLOBAL DISABLED POPULATION D ESTIMATES OF GDP LOST DUE TO E HUMAN ABILITY F THE STANDARD RULES ON THE EQUALIZATION OF OPPORTUNITES.
5 FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES ..81. G EUROPEAN UNION 1996 H PRINCIPLES OF UNIVERSAL DESIGN ..86. I EXCERPTS FROM THE AUDIT OF THE CONSTRUCTION. DOCUMENTATION FOR THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE. CENTER, DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA ..88. TABLES. IN TEXT. Ranges of Populations of People with Annual Value of GDP Lost Due to IN ANNEXES. DISABILITY Classes and Severity Weightings for the 22 Indicator 45. Estimated Range of Global Population of People with Disabilities ..64. Disabled Population Estimates for High Human Development Disabled Population Estimates for Medium Human Development Countries.
6 67. Disabled Population Estimates for Low Human Development Total Annual Value of GDP Lost Due to Annual Value of GDP Lost Due to DISABILITY for High Income Countries ..75. Annual Value of GDP Lost Due to DISABILITY for Medium Income Annual Value of GDP Lost Due to DISABILITY for Low Income FIGURES. IN TEXT. The Disablement Phenomena as Conceptualized in the Original ICIDH ..2. Current Understanding of Interactions within ICIDH-2 Dimensions ..3. IN ANNEXES. Percentage Disabled by Country or Area, Year of Data Collection and Type of iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.
7 Nansea Metts, Phillip Thompson and Supriya Baily assisted with research and preparation of the paper. Many other people, within and outside of the World Bank, also supported and participated in the project. World Bank encouragement and support were initially provided by Jan Piercy, Executive Director, United States; Hans-Martin Boehmer, Program Coordinator, Europe and Central Asia; Nat Colletta, Manager, Post Conflict Reconstruction Unit; and Nick Burnett, Sector Manager, Human Development, Africa Region. Critical commitments of Bank resources, time and energy were then made by David de Ferranti, Vice President, Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Office and Steen Jorgensen, Sector Manager, Social Protection Team, Human Development Network.
8 In addition to David de Ferranti and Steen Jorgensen, who's enlightened contributions were absolutely vital to the project, the author is grateful to the following Bank Staff who also assisted in the research and commented on drafts: Zafiris Tzannatos, Sector Manager, Middle East and North Africa Region, Human Development Department. Diana Walker, Assistant to the Vice President, Human Development Network. Dinah McLeod, Operations Officer, Social Protection Team, Human Development Network. Robert Holzmann, Director and Chair, Sector Board, Social Protection Team, Human Development Network.
9 Louise Fox, Lead Specialist, Pensions, Social Protection Team, Human Development Network. The author is also indebted to the following individuals outside of the Bank for providing information, data, insights and experiences which have contributed greatly to the project: Paul Ackerman, , Director, International and Interagency Activities, National Institute on DISABILITY and Rehabilitation Research, Department of Education. Janet Allem, Deputy Director, Administrative Services, Mary Lou Breslin, Program Director, DISABILITY Rights Education and Defense Fund and Adjunct Faculty, University of San Francisco Executive Master of Management and DISABILITY Services Program.
10 Scott Brown, Associate Division Director, Special Education Programs Early Childhood Team, United States Department of Education. Mary Chamie, Chief, Statistical Classifications, Economic Statistics Branch, United Nations Statistics Division. Ambassador Herman J. Cohen, Senior Advisor, Global Coalition for Africa. Deidre Davis, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State, Office of Equal Employment Opportunity and Civil Rights, Department of State. Walter Eigner, President, Inclusion International, 1994-1998. Dennis Fantin, , Research Biophysicist, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.