1 ELECTRONIC FORMULAS . Ohm's Law FORMULAS for D-C Circuits. E ' IR '. P. ' PR E2. P ' I 2R ' EI '. I R. Ohm's Law FORMULAS for A-C Circuits and Power Factor. P PZ E 2 cos1. E ' IZ ' ' P ' I 2 Z cos1 ' IE cos1 '. I cos1 cos1 Z. In the above FORMULAS 1 is the angle of lead or lag between current and voltage and cos 1 = P/EI = power factor or pf. Active power (in watts) P R. pf ' ' pf '. Apparent power (in volt&s) EI Z. Note: Active power is the "resistive" power and equals the equivalent heating effect on water. Voltage/Current Phase Rule of Thumb Remember "ELI the ICE man". ELI: Voltage (E) comes before (leads) current (I) in an inductor (L). ICE: Current (I) comes before (leads) Voltage (E) in a capacitor (C). Resistors in Series Rtotal ' R1 % R2 ' R3 % .. R1 R2. Two Resistors in Parallel Rt ' Resistors in Parallel, General Formula R1 % R2. 1. Rtotal '. 1 1 1. % % %.. R1 R2 R3.
2 Resonant Frequency FORMULAS *Where in the second formula f is in kHz and L and C are in microunits. 1 ( 1 25,330( 1 25,330(. f ' , or f ' L ' , or L ' C ' , or C '. 2B LC LC 4B2f 2C f 2C 4B2f 2L f 2L. 1 R. Conductance G ' (for D&C circuit) G ' (for A&C circuit). R R %X 2. 2. 1 1 XL. Reactance FORMULAS XC ' C ' XL ' 2 BfL L '. 2Bf C 2Bf XC 2Bf RX. Impedance FORMULAS Z ' R 2%(XL&XC)2 (for series circuit) Z ' (for R and X in parallel). 2 2. R %X. XL XC. Q or Figure of Merit Q ' or R R. Frequency Response Inductor * Capacitor * Resister "Cartoon" memory aid DC. Blocked DC Pass Block Attenuate DC. Passes Low Freq Attenuate * Attenuate * Attenuate AC High Freq Passes High Block Freq Pass Attenuate High Freq Blocked * Attenuation varies as a function of the value of the each device and the frequency Sinusoidal Voltages and Currents Peak Effective Effective value = x peak value Average [Also known as Root-Mean Square (RMS) value].)))
3 TIME. Half Cycle Average value = x peak value Peak value = x effective value Effective value = x average value Three-phase AC Configurations Wye (Y) or Star Delta (120E phase difference between each voltage). If the connection to a three phase AC configuration is miswired, switching any two of the phases will put it back in the proper sequence. Electric power for ships commonly uses the delta configuration, while commercial ELECTRONIC and aircraft applications commonly use the wye configuration. Color Code for House Wiring: PURPOSE: Color Code for Chassis Wiring: Black or red HOT Red White NEUTRAL (Return) White Green or bare GROUND Black Color Code for Resistors: First and second band: Third band Fourth band (and third band # of zeros if not gold/silver) Multiplier Tolerance 0 Black 5 Green .1 Gold 5% Gold 1 Brown 6 Blue .01 Silver 10% Silver 2 Red 7 Violet 20% No color 3 Orange 8 Gray 4 Yellow 9 White The third color band indicates number of zeros to be added after figures given by first two color bands.
4 But if third color band is gold, multiply by and if silver multiply by Do not confuse with fourth color-band that indicates tolerance. Thus, a resistor marked blue-red-gold-gold has a resistance of ohms and a 5% tolerance.