1 Insight Report The Global Competitiveness Report 2012 2013. Klaus Schwab, World Economic Forum Insight Report The Global Competitiveness Report 2012 2013. Full Data Edition Professor Klaus Schwab World Economic Forum Editor Professor Xavier Sala-i-Mart n Columbia University Chief Advisor of The Global Benchmarking Network The Global Competitiveness Report 2012 20013: World Economic Forum Full Data Edition is published by the World Economic Geneva Forum within the framework of The Global Benchmarking Network. Copyright 2012. by the World Economic Forum Professor Klaus Schwab All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be Executive Chairman reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, Professor Xavier Sala-i-Mart n photocopying, or otherwise without the prior permission Chief Advisor of The Global Benchmarking Network of the World Economic Forum. B rge Brende ISBN-13: 978-92-95044-35-7. Managing Director, Government Relations and ISBN-10: 92-95044-35-5.
2 Constituents Engagement This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made from fully managed and sustained forest sources. THE Global BENCHMARKING NETWORK. Printed and bound in Switzerland by SRO-Kundig. Jennifer Blanke, Senior Director, Lead Economist, Head of The Global The Report and an interactive data platform are available Benchmarking Network at Be at Bilbao-Osorio, Associate Director, Senior Economist Ciara Browne, Associate Director Roberto Crotti, Quantitative Economist Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz, Director, Senior Economist, Head of Competitiveness Research Brindusa Fidanza, Associate Director, Environmental Initiatives Thierry Geiger, Associate Director, Economist Tania Gutknecht, Community Manager Caroline Ko, Junior Economist Cecilia Serin, Team Coordinator We thank Hope Steele for her excellent editing work and Neil Weinberg for his superb graphic design and layout. We are grateful to Annabel Guinault for her invaluable research assistance. The terms country and nation as used in this Report do not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice.
3 The terms cover well-defined, geographically self-contained economic areas that may not be states but for which statistical data are maintained on a separate and independent basis. Contents Partner Institutes v Part 2: Data Presentation 79. Preface xiii Country/Economy Profiles 81. by Klaus Schwab How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles ..83. Index of Countries/Economies ..85. Country/Economy Profiles ..86. Part 1: Measuring Competitiveness 1. Data Tables 375. How to Read the Data Tables ..377. The Global Competitiveness Index 3 Index of Data Tables ..379. 2012 2013: Strengthening Recovery by Data Tables ..381. Raising Productivity by Xavier Sala-i-Mart n, Be at Bilbao-Osorio, Jennifer Blanke, Roberto Crotti, Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz, Technical Notes and Sources 519. Thierry Geiger, and Caroline Ko About the Authors 523. Assessing the Sustainable Competitiveness 49. of Nations Acknowledgments 527. by Be at Bilbao-Osorio, Jennifer Blanke, Roberto Crotti, Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz, Brindusa Fidanza, Thierry Geiger, Caroline Ko, and Cecilia Serin The Executive Opinion Survey: The Voice 69.
4 Of the Business Community by Ciara Browne, Thierry Geiger, and Tania Gutknecht The Global Competitiveness Report 2012 2013 | iii Partner Institutes The World Economic Forum's Global Benchmarking Barbados Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies, Network is pleased to acknowledge and thank University of West Indies (UWI). the following organizations as its valued Partner Judy Whitehead, Director Institutes, without which the realization of The Global Belgium Competitiveness Report 2012 2013 would not have Vlerick Business School been feasible: Priscilla Boiardi, Associate, Competence Centre Entrepreneurship, Governance and Strategy Albania Wim Moesen, Professor Institute for Contemporary Studies (ISB). Leo Sleuwaegen, Professor, Competence Centre Artan Hoxha, President Entrepreneurship, Governance and Strategy Elira Jorgoni, Senior Expert Endrit Kapaj, Expert Benin CAPOD Conception et Analyse de Politiques de Algeria D veloppement Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliqu e pour Epiphane Adjovi, Director le D veloppement (CREAD).
5 Maria-Odile Attanasso, Deputy Coordinator Youcef Benabdallah, Assistant Professor Fructueux Deguenonvo, Researcher Yassine Ferfera, Director Bosnia and Herzegovina Argentina MIT Center, School of Economics and Business in Sarajevo, IAE Universidad Austral University of Sarajevo Eduardo Luis Fracchia, Professor Zlatko Lagumdzija, Professor Santiago Novoa, Project Manager Zeljko Sain, Executive Director Armenia Jasmina Selimovic, Assistant Director Economy and Values Research Center Botswana Manuk Hergnyan, Chairman Botswana National Productivity Centre Sevak Hovhannisyan, Board Member and Senior Associate Letsogile Batsetswe, Research Consultant and Statistician Gohar Malumyan, Research Associate Baeti Molake, Executive Director Australia Phumzile Thobokwe, Manager, Information and Research Australian Industry Group Services Department Colleen Dowling, Senior Research Coordinator Brazil Innes Willox, Chief Executive Funda o Dom Cabral, Bradesco Innovation Center Austria Carlos Arruda, International Relations Director, Innovation Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO) and Competitiveness Professor Karl Aiginger, Director Daniel Berger, Bachelor Student in Economics Gerhard Schwarz, Coordinator, Survey Department Fabiana Madsen, Economist and Associate Researcher Movimento Brasil Competitivo (MBC).
6 Azerbaijan Carolina Aichinger, Project Coordinator Azerbaijan Marketing Society Erik Camarano, Chief Executive Officer Fuad Aliyev, Deputy Chairman Ashraf Hajiyev, Consultant Brunei Darussalam Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources Bahrain Pehin Dato Yahya Bakar, Minister Bahrain Economic Development Board Normah Suria Hayati Jamil Al-Sufri, Permanent Secretary Kamal Bin Ahmed, Minister of Transportation and Acting Chief Executive of the Economic Development Board Bulgaria Nada Azmi, Manager, Economic Planning and Development Center for Economic Development Maryam Matter, Coordinator, Economic Planning and Adriana Daganova, Expert, International Programmes and Development Projects Anelia Damianova, Senior Expert Bangladesh Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD) Burkina Faso Khondaker Golam Moazzem, Senior Research Fellow lnstitut Sup rieure des Sciences de la Population (ISSP), Kishore Kumer Basak, Research Associate University of Ouagadougou Mustafizur Rahman, Executive Director Baya Banza, Director The Global Competitiveness Report 2012 2013 | v Partner Institutes Burundi Cyprus University Research Centre for Economic and Social The European University Development (CURDES), National University of Burundi Bambos Papageorgiou, Head of Socioeconomic and Banderembako Deo, Director Academic Research Gilbert Niyongabo, Dean, Faculty of Economics &.
7 Cdbbank The Cyprus Development Bank Management Maria Markidou-Georgiadou, Manager, Business Development Cambodia and Special Projects Economic Institute of Cambodia Czech Republic Sok Hach, President CMC Graduate School of Business Sokheng Sam, Researcher Tomas Janca, Executive Director Cameroon Denmark Comit de Comp titivit ( Competitiveness Committee). Danish Technological Institute, Center for Policy and Business Lucien Sanzouango, Permanent Secretary Development Canada Hanne Shapiro, Center Manager The Conference Board of Canada Ecuador Michael R. Bloom, Vice-President, Organizational ESPAE Graduate School of Management, Escuela Superior Effectiveness & Learning Polit cnica del Litoral (ESPOL). Douglas Watt, Associate Director Elizabeth Arteaga, Project Assistant Cape Verde Virginia Lasio, Director INOVE RESEARCH Investiga o e Desenvolvimento, Lda Sara Wong, Professor J lio Delgado, Partner and Senior Researcher Egypt Jos Mendes, Chief Executive Officer The Egyptian Center for Economic Studies (ECES).
8 Sara Fran a Silva, Project Manager Iman Al-Ayouty, Senior Economist Chad Omneia Helmy, Acting Executive Director and Director Groupe de Recherches Alternatives et de Monitoring du Projet of Research P trole-Tchad-Cameroun (GRAMP-TC). Estonia Antoine Doudjidingao, Researcher Estonian Institute of Economic Research Gilbert Maoundonodji, Director Evelin Ahermaa, Head of Economic Research Sector Celine N nodji Mbaipeur, Programme Officer Marje Josing, Director Chile Estonian Development Fund Universidad Adolfo Ib ez Kitty Kubo, Head of Foresight Fernando Larrain Aninat, Director MBA Ott P rna, Chief Executive Officer Leonidas Montes, Dean, School of Government Ethiopia China African Institute of Management, Development and Institute of Economic System and Management, National Governance Development and Reform Commission Zebenay Kifle, General Manager Chen Wei, Research Fellow Tegenge Teka, Senior Expert Dong Ying, Professor Zhou Haichun, Deputy Director and Professor Finland China Center for Economic Statistics Research, Tianjin ETLA The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy Markku Kotilainen, Research Director University of Finance and Economics Petri Rouvinen, Research Director Bojuan Zhao.
9 Professor Pekka Yl -Anttila, Managing Director Fan Yang, Professor Jian Wang, Associate Professor Hongye Xiao, Professor France Lu Dong, Professor HEC School of Management, Paris Bertrand Moingeon, Professor and Deputy Dean Colombia Bernard Ramanantsoa, Professor and Dean National Planning Department Sara Patricia Rivera, Advisor Gabon John Rodr guez, Coordinator, Competitiveness Observatory Conf d ration Patronale Gabonaise Javier Villarreal, Enterprise Development Director Regis Loussou Kiki, General Secretary Gina Eyama Ondo, Assistant General Secretary Colombian Private Council on Competitiveness Henri Claude Oyima, President Rosario C rdoba, President Marco Llin s, Vicepresident Gambia, The Gambia Economic and Social Development Research Institute C te d'Ivoire (GESDRI). Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de C te d'Ivoire Makaireh A. Njie, Director Jean-Louis Billon, President Mamadou Sarr, Director General Georgia Business Initiative for Reforms in Georgia Croatia Tamara Janashia, Executive Director National Competitiveness Council Giga Makharadze, Founding Member of the Board of Directors Jadranka Gable, Advisor Mamuka Tsereteli, Founding Member of the Board of Directors Kresimir Jurlin, Research Fellow vi | The Global Competitiveness Report 2012 2013.
10 Partner Institutes Germany Ireland WHU Otto Beisheim School of Management Institute for Business Development and Competitiveness Ralf Fendel, Professor of Monetary Economics School of Economics, University College Cork Michael Frenkel, Professor, Chair of Macroeconomics and Justin Doran, Principal Associate International Economics Eleanor Doyle, Director Catherine Kavanagh, Principal Associate Ghana Association of Ghana Industries (AGI) Forf s, Economic Analysis and Competitiveness Department Patricia Addy, Projects Officer Adrian Devitt, Manager Nana Owusu-Afari, President Conor Hand, Economist Seth Twum-Akwaboah, Executive Director Israel Greece Manufacturers' Association of Israel (MAI). SEV Hellenic Federation of Enterprises Dan Catarivas, Director Michael Mitsopoulos, Senior Advisor, Entrepreneurship Amir Hayek, Managing Director Thanasis Printsipas, Economist, Entrepreneurship Zvi Oren, President Guatemala Italy FUNDESA SDA Bocconi School of Management Felipe Bosch G.