1 Making Security Interests public : Registration mechanisms in 35 Jurisdictions ALEJANDRO ALVAREZ DE LA CAMPA, SANTIAGO CROCI DOWNES, AND BETINA TIRELLI HENNIG. Doing Business & The Global Secured Transactions and Collateral Registries Program CONTENTS I. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. The report was prepared by a World Bank team comprising Alejandro Alvarez de la Campa (Global Product Specialist, Secured Transactions and Collateral Registries Program), Santiago Croci Downes (Private Sector Development Specialist, Doing Business Project), and Betina Tirelli Hennig (Private Sector Development Analyst, Doing Business Project). The team is grateful for excellent support and review by Elaine MacEachern (Senior Secured Transactions Specialist), and Everett Theodore Wohlers (Senior Secured Transactions Specialist).
2 We also thank Silvia Solidoro (Consultant) for her assistance in the period of data collection. The team would like to thank all government authorities with whom it interacted during the report's preparation for the time that they devoted to interviews and for sharing their views and knowledge. Contents OVERVIEW .. 2. SECTION 1: survey METHODOLOGY .. 4. SECTION 2: FINDINGS AND BEST PRACTICES .. 6. Access to the registry and to the registry information .. 6. Registration process .. 7. Notice systems: paper-based or online Registration .. 7. Registration in six jurisdictions: electronic, paper-based, and hybrid systems.
3 8. Registration among jurisdictions surveyed .. 11. Number of registrations.. 12. Registration costs .. 12. Centralized registry information .. 13. By types of assets for which notices of Security interest are registered .. 14. By geographical coverage of collateral registry.. 14. By types of debtors and types of legal Interests .. 15. The search process .. 15. Summary of the main features of a modern collateral registry .. 18. ANNEX I .. 20. ANNEX II .. 21. ANNEX III.. 23. ANNEX IV .. 25. ANNEX V .. 26. CONTENTS 1. Overview The importance of a strong secured transactions law and effective Registration system for movable collateral has been a focal point of legal reform for international organizations over the past two decades.
4 Efforts by international donors to modernize secured transactions systems started in the 1990s in Central and Eastern Several jurisdictions in the region such as Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, and Ukraine started reforming their legal frameworks based on modern principles. Reforms were introduced in other regions in subsequent years. After the East Asian nancial crisis in the late 1990s, a G-22 report highlighted the importance of modernizing secured transactions systems to diversify credit risk and foster nonbank nancial intermediation. As a result, multilateral banks initiated benchmarking exercises on secured transactions by adopting international conventions, model laws, and developing regional technical assistance tools.
5 In 2001 the International Institute for the Uni cation of Private Law (UNIDROIT). adopted the Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment. Furthermore, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) adopted the UN Convention on the Assignment of Receivables in International Trade. The same year the World Bank rati ed principles for insolvency and creditor right systems (revised in 2005) and the Asian Development Bank conducted a major study of secured transaction law reform in China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Thailand. In 2002 the Organization of American States enacted an Inter-American Model Law on Secured Transactions2 and in 2009 adopted the Model Registry Regulations under the Model Inter-American Law on Secured Meanwhile, UNCITRAL.
6 Adopted in 2007 a guide to legislation on secured In 2010 the International Finance Corporation (IFC) issued a guide on secured transaction systems and collateral A new version of World Bank principles on insolvency and creditor rights is expected to be adopted soon, as well as a guide on Registration systems from UNCITRAL. 1 EBRD, Model Law on Secured Transactions, 1994. 2 3 Model Registry Regulations under the Model Inter-American Law on Secured Transactions, 4 UNCITRAL, Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions, 2007. 5 Alvarez de la Campa, Alejandro, Everett T. Wohlers, Yair Baranes, and Sevi Simavi. 2010.
7 Secured Transactions Systems and Collateral Registries. Washington, DC: International Finance Corporation. 2 Making Security Interests public : Registration mechanisms IN 35 JURISDICTIONS. The role of modern collateral registries in This report also addresses the different Registration the publication of Security Interests mechanisms for Security Interests in movable property and their effectiveness in achieving the two goals stated Movable assets tangible or intangible often account above. It does so using the results of a 2010 World Bank for most of rms' capital stock. Thus it is important Group survey on collateral registries.
8 For jurisdictions to develop adequate laws on secured transactions to allow borrowers and lenders to recognize The publication was developed for use as a diagnostic movable assets as collateral, supporting nancing tool and informational source for policymakers, secured with such assets. development practitioners, and legal experts involved in collateral registry reform. It may also be educational Though the legal and regulatory framework is essential for those who are not experts in this eld, but might to any secured transactions system, the ef cacy of a be affected by collateral registries in their business secured transactions law also requires an effective or personal activities.
9 This paper complements the Registration mechanism for Interests in movable literature on legal and institutional frameworks property. for secured transactions, which has not extensively This report focuses on analysis of such institutions, documented the functionality of existing registry highlighting the importance of a publicly accessible systems. registry where information on Interests in movable assets The report emphasizes the practices and features can be registered. The main goals of collateral registries available in different registries and key characteristics are to provide public notice of Interests in movable assets of effective collateral registries.
10 The experiences of and to establish priority in the assets described in the jurisdictions that have instituted best practice registries notice for secured creditors. show how technology can improve the ef ciency of collateral registries. OVERVIEW 3. SECTION 1: survey methodology The Collateral Registries survey was developed by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and World Bank's Doing Business Project, and the IFC's Global Secured Transactions and Collateral Registries Program. Since its inception in 2003, the Doing Business Project has in uenced about 300. regulatory reforms around the world by measuring and tracking changes in the regulations applying to domestic companies in 11 areas, including secured transactions.