1 MPC MIGRATION POLICY CENTRE . Co-financed by the European Union MPC - MIGRATION PROFILE. Tunisia The Demographic-Economic Framework of MIGRATION The legal Framework of MIGRATION The Socio-Political Framework of MIGRATION Report written by the MPC Team on the basis of CARIM South database and publications June, 2013. 2013. All rights reserved. No part of this paper may be distributed, quoted or reproduced in any form without permission from the MPC. 03& 0 LJUDWLRQ 3 URILOH 781,6,$. The Demographic-Economic Framework of MIGRATION The labour market's poor performance together with a stalled democratization process have been the main determinants of persisting labour emigration flows from Tunisia.
2 In contrast with the sustained economic growth of Tunisia over the last decades, unemployment has never dampened down and more recently has affected the most educated too. Tunisian emigration was traditionally directed towards Western European countries especially France, Germany and Belgium and to a lesser extent to Libya. After the limits put in place by European countries in the 1970s and the mass expulsion of Tunisian nationals from Libya in 1985, Tunisians resorted to family settlement in Europe, a diversification in the choice of destination countries, together with significant inflows of return migrants.
3 Today, new European destinations ( Italy and Spain) are attracting more and more Tunisian migrants, especially their irregular component. Finally, as a consequence of the 2011 revolts, both regular and irregular emigration from Tunisia has substantially increased. As to inward MIGRATION , Tunisia does not host large numbers of regular migrants. Indeed, their (low). proportion of the total resident population (less than 1%) has not changed greatly since the 1970s. However, since the 1990s, Tunisia has evolved into an important transit country receiving flows . mainly from Sub-Saharan countries attempting to reach southern Italy from the Tunisian coasts.
4 In addition, Tunisia was the country most affected by the 2011 Libyan Civil war with almost 350,000. migrants arriving from Libya. Outward MIGRATION Inward MIGRATION Stock Stock In 2009, Tunisians recorded in Tunisian consulates In 2004, 35,192 foreign nationals were recorded abroad stood at 1,098,200, or of the Tunisian as residing in Tunisia. They represent a very population. In the last decade, consular records show small proportion of the total resident population a rise in the propensity to leave the country: from 2001 ( ), the same value registered at the 1994. to 2009, the number of Tunisians abroad increased Census.
5 Irregular migrants are also living in the from almost 764,000 to more than 1 million, at an country, but no solid estimate of their number has annual average growth rate of (compared to the been provided. Tunisian population growth rate equal to in the same period). Resident foreign population in Tunisia by sex and country of citizenship, 2004. Tunisian emigration stocks by country of residence Total according to Tunisian consular statistics (2001, 2009) and Country of citizenship Males Females Number %. destination countries' statistics (years around 2012). Arab countries 10,603 10,597 21,200 Tunisian consular Destination of which Algeria 3,835 5,777 9,612 Country of statistics countries' Morocco 3,757 2,606 6,363 residence 2001 2009 statistics Libya 860 878 1,738 Europe 642,541 911,400 414,077 European countries 3,775 5,892 9,667 of which France 470,459 598,500 236,480 of which France 1,750 2,862 4,612 Italy 78,581 152,700 109,371 Italy 867 693 1,560 Germany 44,143 85,500 21,161 Germany 317 683 1,000 Arab countries 102,725 154,900 12,077 African countries 1,906 1,111 3,017 of which Libya 47,751 87.
6 200 of which Ivory Coast 338 271 609 North America 17,351 29,000 8,175 Asian countries 245 185 430 Other countries 1,363 2,900 32,266 America 98 163 261 Total 763,980 1,098,200 466,595 Other countries 226 391 617 Source: Tunisian consular records and destination countries' Total 16,853 18,339 35,192 statistics (population censuses, population registers, register Source: Tunisian Census, 2004. of foreigners, etc.). The majority of recorded immigrants comes In 2009, of Tunisians abroad lived in from other Maghreb countries ( and Europe, mainly in France ( ), Italy ( ) and Germany ( ). Important numbers are also found in from Algeria and Morocco, respectively) and Arab countries ( ) especially in Libya ( ), Europe ( ), especially from France ( ).
7 Even if an unknown proportion of them returned home and Italy ( ). as a consequence of the 2011 Libyan civil war. MIGRATION POLICY CENTRE ( ) 1. 03& 0 LJUDWLRQ 3 URILOH 781,6,$. From 2001 to 2009, Italy and Germany registered As to their profile, immigrants have a high level the highest annual average growth rates of Tunisian of education ( are graduate or more). Indeed, emigration stocks, equal to respectively and they tend to be employed in highly-skilled The lower rate registered in France ( ) occupations ( ), mainly as legislators, senior confirms the rising diversification of destinations for officials and managers ( ) and professionals Tunisian migrants.
8 ( ). If we look at destination country' statistics, smaller numbers are found: 466,595 Tunisian migrants Resident foreign population by country of citizenship, 2004. resided abroad c. 2012. The discrepancy between 12,000. consular and destination countries' statistics depends 10,000 LEVEL OF EDUCATION. on a variety of factors. First, unlike destination 8,000. sources, consular records include second and third 6,000. generation migrants. Second, destination country' 4,000. statistics are not available for a number of countries 2,000. ( Libya), since their authorities do not release data 0. None Primary Lower Secondary Tertiary on their populations by nationality.
9 Secondary As to their gender profile, most Tunisians 8,000. registered at the Consulates are men ( ). In 7,000 OCCUPATION. OECD countries, Tunisians have, on average, a low 6,000. 5,000. level of education ( ) and are employed in low- 4,000. skilled jobs, mainly as plant and machine operators 3,000. and other elementary jobs ( ), as craft and 2,000. 1,000. related trades workers ( ), as service, shop and 0. market sales workers ( ) and as plant and Low skilled Low skilled High skilled High skilled machine operators (year 2006 - ) blue collar white collar blue collar white collar Arab countries Europe Af rica Others Flows Source: Tunisian Census, 2004.
10 As a consequence of the 2011 revolts, in 2011-12 the annual number of migrants almost doubled with respect Flows to 2005-2010 outflows. The total passed from 26,085. (average value 2005-2010) to 50,391 (2011-12). In the last decade, the African presence in Tunisia Arrivals and departures of Tunisians to and from has become more important for various reasons. On Tunisia, 1999-2012 the one hand, the large investments of Tunisian 70,000. authorities in the education system has tended to Arrivals Departures Net MIGRATION 50,000 attract more and more students from the whole 30,000 continent; on the other hand, the displacement of the 10,000 African Development Bank (ADB) from Abidjan (Ivory Coast) to Tunis in 2003 has gradually led to a rise in -10,000.