1 BACKGROUND REPORT: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR developing . HIGH-VALUE AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS IN ETHIOPIA. Document of The World Bank Report No. Confidential I. Draft April 9, 2004. POVERTY REDUCTION AND ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT 2. COUNTRY DEPARTMENT FOR ETHIOPIA. AFRICA REGION. This document has a restricted distribution and may be used by recipients only in the performance of their official duties. Its contents may not otherwise be disclosed without World Bank authorization. 1. TABLE OF CONTENTS. Table of 2. List of Tables .. 3. List of 4. I. 5. II. Overview of Export Performance in Ethiopia .. 7. General Export Trends.
2 7. Fresh Fruits .. 10. Fresh Vegetables .. 13. Dairy Products ..Error! Bookmark not defined. III. Global Market 16. Globalization and Market 16. Lessons from African Success Stories in Horticulture .. 21. Priorities for the role of the government in horticultural development .. 27. IV. The European Union Market for Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Cut Flowers 31. Cut Flowers .. 37. V. Globalization, Competitiveness, and Value 41. Global Value 41. A Broad View of Competitive 41. The Challenge of developing Competitive Global Supply Chains .. 45. VI. Cluster Analysis of Floriculture Value Chains .. 47. Actors .. 47. Rose Supply Chain: Production to Market.
3 49. Marketing .. 52. Price Mark-Up in the Cut-Flower Value 53. Investment and 54. Supporting Institutions and ! Bookmark not defined. VII. Cluster Analysis of Horticulture Value Chains .. 56. The Actors .. 56. Supply Chains .. 57. As noted above, there are at least three supply chains existing for horticulture products, depending on the destination market and type of product. In addition, there is a greater degree of involvement of the state in both production as well as 57. Market 60. Private Commercial Farming for Export .. 60. An Overview of the Domestic Marketing Parastatal Etfruit .. 64. The Cooperative Model: The Case of Adamitulu Jido Kombolcha Peasant 67.
4 Constraints and CHALLENGES to Horticulture Development in Ethiopia .. 71. VIII. Meeting the CHALLENGES : A Road 73. 2. LIST OF TABLES. Table 1. Fresh Fruits Production Trends, 1993-2003 .. 11. Table 2a. Fresh Fruit Export Trends by Volume, 1993-2002 .. 12. Table 2b. Fresh Fruit Export Trends by Value, 1993-2001 .. 12. Table 3. Vegetable Production Trends, 1993-2003 .. 14. Table 4a. Fresh Vegetables Export Trends by Volume, 1993-2002 .. 15. Table 4b. Fresh Vegetables Export Trends by Value, 1993-2001 .. 15. Table 5. Fruit and vegetable exportsa from sub-Saharan Africa ( 000 US$) .. 20. Table 6. Composition of agricultural exports of Kenya, Cote d'Ivoire, Zimbabwe, and South Africa (2000).
5 22. Table 7. Effect of government roles in promoting horticultural exports .. 29. Table 8 Import of fresh vegetables of EU countries (thousand tons).. 31. Table 9 Product mix of EU imports in 32. Table 10 Exports of fresh vegetables from sub-Saharan Africa to the EU ( 000 mt).. 33. Table 11 Imports of fruit by the EU ( 000 tons) .. 34. Table 12 Product mix of extra-EU imports of 35. Table 13 Exports of fresh fruits from Africa to the EU ( 000 tons) .. 35. Table 14. Leading exporters of cut flowers ( 000 US $) .. 37. Table 15 Africa's leading exporters of cut flowers ( 000 US$).. 38. Table 16 Cut flower imports from non-EU countries (million Swiss francs).
6 39. Table 17. Non-EU flower suppliers to the EU ( 000 Euros).. 40. Table 18. Summary Characteristics of Rose Farms .. 48. Table 19. Marketing by Ethiopian Rose Farms .. 53. Table 20. Price Mark-Up and Farm Operating Costs for Exported 53. Table 21. Start-up Investment Components of Commercial Rose Farming (Birr) .. 54. Table 22. Members of the Ethiopian Horticulture Producers and Exporters Association .. 57. Table 23. Price Mark-up for Bobby Bean Exports to 63. Table 24. Price Mark-Up for Oranges in Domestic 66. 3. LIST OF FIGURES. Figure 1. 7. Figure 2. 8. Figure 3. 9. Figure 4. Importance of Perishable Products in developing Country Trade 18.
7 Figure 5. A Basic Value Chain 41. Figure 6: Porter's Diamond of National Advantage 44. Figure 7. CHALLENGES for High-Value Agricultural Export Promotion 45. Figure 8. Functions and Dimensions of Horticultural Value Chain 46. Figure 9. Vertically Integrated Rose Supply Chain 50. Figure 10. Supply Chains for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables 59. 4. II. INTRODUCTION. In recent decades, rapid growth in the international trade of high-value commodities has resulted in significant agricultural growth in many countries. Trade in high-value products, such as fruits and vegetables, dairy products, poultry, and fish, are increasingly displacing exports of traditional commodities, such as cereals, sugar, coffee, tea, and tobacco.
8 Thus, during the 1980s, the aggregate value of world trade in cereals, sugar and tropical beverages declined, while high-value exports grew by 8 percent annually (Watts and Goodman, 1997). Fruits and vegetables are the largest component of high-value exports, with world-wide exports of US$ 21 billion in 2001. Fruit and vegetable exports have grown percent annually over the 1990s, and developing countries accounted for almost two-thirds of this growth (FAO, 2003). Imports of fruits and vegetable products by the European Union surpass imports of all other categories of agricultural products (Watts, 1994). A number of developing countries have become successful exporters of high-value and high- quality food commodities and achieved double-digit growth for a decade or more.
9 In 1990, 24 low and middle-income countries, mainly in Latin America and Asia, exported more than US$500 million in high-value agriculture. Of these, four countries accounted for some 40. percent of the total value of high-value trade (Watts, 1994). Eight of the ten countries worldwide with the highest growth rates of agricultural exports over the period 1980 to 1998. had fruits and vegetables as their largest export earner. In the case of Ethiopia, given the declining export earnings from traditional exports of coffee in particular, flori-horticulture and other non-traditional, high-value, agricultural export expansion represent an important area of potential income growth.
10 The agriculture- development-led-industrialization strategy of the country envisages significant scope for achieving greater commercialization of smallholder agriculture. Ethiopia is considered to have the potential to achieve trade gains in these sub-sectors because of agro-climatic advantages and, in the case of livestock, a large indigenous stock. This study takes a more holistic view to achieving competitive advantage, as a function of physical, institutional, infrastructural, and policy factors. The study thus explores the existing market OPPORTUNITIES for Ethiopia and the CHALLENGES it faces in benefiting from these market OPPORTUNITIES .