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Phase Angle Differences - Synchrophasor Solutions

Electric Power Group Presents Operationalizing phasor Technology Phase Angle Differences What They Mean and How to Use Them For Operations September 17, 2013. Presented by: John Ballance Electric Power Group. 2013. All rights reserved. Webinar Outline July 16 Webinar - System Events- Deciphering the Heartbeat of the Power Grid Aug 20 Webinar - Using Synchrophasor Technology For Real-Time Operations and Reliability Management Today's Topic: Phase Angle Differences - What They Mean and How To Use Them in Operations Phase Angles - Introduction Use of Phase Angles in Control Rooms - Monitor, Diagnose and Act Power Flow Model - Using 8 Bus System to Illustrate Use of Phase Angles Base Case Line Trip Load Trip Generator Trip Cascade Power Flow Model Representation of Sources and Sinks - Examples Phase Angles - Recap Phase Angles - Key Takeaways Schedule of Upcoming Webinars Appendix: Power Flow Model 8 Bus System Electric Power Group.

A Phasor is a rotating vector Voltage Phasor is defined by magnitude and angle Angle is measured with respect to universal time (T=0 top of a second) Phasor rotates counter clockwise, similar to rotating magnetic field in a synchronous generator A Synchrophasor is a Phasor referenced to 60 Hz with angle referenced to universal time (T=0 top of …

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  Phases, Glean, Differences, Voltage, Phasor, Phase angle differences, Voltage phasor

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Transcription of Phase Angle Differences - Synchrophasor Solutions

1 Electric Power Group Presents Operationalizing phasor Technology Phase Angle Differences What They Mean and How to Use Them For Operations September 17, 2013. Presented by: John Ballance Electric Power Group. 2013. All rights reserved. Webinar Outline July 16 Webinar - System Events- Deciphering the Heartbeat of the Power Grid Aug 20 Webinar - Using Synchrophasor Technology For Real-Time Operations and Reliability Management Today's Topic: Phase Angle Differences - What They Mean and How To Use Them in Operations Phase Angles - Introduction Use of Phase Angles in Control Rooms - Monitor, Diagnose and Act Power Flow Model - Using 8 Bus System to Illustrate Use of Phase Angles Base Case Line Trip Load Trip Generator Trip Cascade Power Flow Model Representation of Sources and Sinks - Examples Phase Angles - Recap Phase Angles - Key Takeaways Schedule of Upcoming Webinars Appendix: Power Flow Model 8 Bus System Electric Power Group.

2 2013. All rights reserved. 2. What is a voltage phasor ? A phasor is a rotating vector voltage phasor is defined by magnitude V1 and Angle 1. Angle is measured with respect to universal time (T=0 top of a second). phasor rotates counter clockwise, similar to rotating magnetic field in a synchronous generator A Synchrophasor is a phasor referenced to 60 Hz with Angle referenced to universal time (T=0 top of second). 90 . 1. V1. V1. 1. 180 0 . T=0 270 . 0 . AC Circuits Sinusoidal Waveform phasor Representation Electric Power Group. 2013. All rights reserved. 3. Power Flow Is a Function of Phase Angle Difference P Unstable Power flows from high to low voltage in DC systems 1 Power flows from high voltage Angle to low voltage Angle in AC systems Power flow equation: Power Flow P = V1 V2 sin( - )/Z, where is greater than . Synchrophasor angles are correlated to universal time (UTC) and 60 Hz Stable Allows comparison over wide area The voltage Angle difference between two 0 45 90 substations correlates with the power being 180.

3 Transferred across the grid between them Angle Difference The Current Angle paired with voltage Angle describes real and reactive power on any line Substation 1 Substation 2. Line(s) impedance Z. V1 e jq V1 e jq P. Electric Power Group. 2013. All rights reserved. 4. Power Flow & Phase Angles AC Power System: Power flows from a point of high voltage Angle to a point of low voltage Angle voltage Angles across a network change when Load something happens ( line outage, generation trip, or load change). Generation Increasing voltage Angle ~ Differences across a network indicates increasing stress Angle difference Electric Power Group. 2013. All rights reserved. 5. Phase Angle Difference Phase Angle Differences between two distant PMUs can indicate the relative stress across the grid, even if the PMUs are not directly connected to each other by a single transmission line. Screenshot of RTDMS Real Time Dynamics Monitoring System Electric Power Group.

4 Built upon GRID-3P platform, US Patent 7,233,843, US Patent 8,060259, and US Patent 8,401,710. All rights reserved. Electric Power Group. 2013. All rights reserved. 6. Use of Phase Angles in Control Rooms Monitor, Diagnose and Act Phase Angle Difference = Grid Stress Operator Actions Grid Stress for Stability: Diagnostics: Redispatch Generation Line Trip Shed Load Load Trip Provide voltage Generation Trip Support Cascade Wide Area, Regional or Local Electric Power Group. 2013. All rights reserved. 7. Power Flow Model - 8 Bus System Base Case Load: 6600 MW (Buses B, D, E, F, G and H). System Stable Generation: 6600 MW (Buses A, C and D). Key Phase Angle Paths: A D. B C Phase Angle BASE. A-G 10 . 200 ~. 3000. ~. 1000 ~ 2600 A-E 7 . E F A-D 6 . 800 1000. G H 600. 1200 2800. No Change Event Mitigation Back to Case Index Electric Power Group. 2013. All rights reserved. 8. Power Flow Model - 8 Bus System Line Trip Load: 6600 MW (Buses B, D, E, F, G and H).

5 Event: Line Trip (A-G) Generation: 6600 MW (Buses A, C and D). Key Phase Angle Path Changes: A D. B C Phase Angle BASE LINE TRIP. A-G 10 45 . 200 ~. 3000. ~. 1000 ~ 2600 A-E 7 16 . E F A-D 6 24 . A-G Angle Difference 800 1000. increased A-G Phase Angle from 10 to G H 600 increases to 45 . 45 . 1200 2800. ACTION: Redispatch Line Trip No Change Event Mitigation Back to Case Index Electric Power Group. 2013. All rights reserved. 9. Power Flow Model - 8 Bus System Line Trip - Mitigation Line Trip: Mitigation Issues: A D A-G Angle at 45 . B C Assume 30 needed to close CB. Options for Redispatch: 200 ~ ACTION. SENSITIVITY. 3000. ~. 1000 ~ 2600 X /100MW. Reduce G Load . E F. Reduce H Load . 800 1000 Reduce D Load and Increase D Gen . 600 Increase C Generation . G H. 1200 2800. 45 . REQUIRED ACTION: Reduce Angle across A-G to 30 to permit CB closing No Change Event Mitigation *Gen A adjusted to balance network load Back to Case Index Electric Power Group.

6 2013. All rights reserved. 10. Power Flow Model - 8 Bus System Line Trip Mitigation Options and Effectiveness Effectiveness of Mitigation Options In Reducing A-G Angle Angle Across Open A-G Circuit Breaker Required A-G Angle : 30 A-G Angle After Event: 45 . Recommended Action -500 MW. -620 MW. Required Mitigation -900 MW. MW -1000 MW. -1300 MW. -1530 MW -1500 MW. *Reduce load, then increase generation to mitigate Back to Case Index Electric Power Group. 2013. All rights reserved. 11. Power Flow Model - 8 Bus System Line Trip - Mitigation Line Trip: Mitigation Issues: A D A-G Angle at 45 . B C Assume 30 needed to close CB. Options for Redispatch: 200 ~ RESULT: 2380. ~. 1000 ~ 2600 ACTION. SENSITIVITY. X /100MW. A-G. Angle . E F. Generation Reduce G Load by 620 MW 30 . Reduction: 800 1000 Reduce H Load by 900 MW 30 . 620 MW*. Reduce D Load by 600 MW & Increase D. 600 30 . G H Gen by 700 MW.

7 Increase C Generation by 1530 MW 30 . 30 580 2800. Load RECOMMENDED ACTION: Reduction: To enable CB closing at 30 , 620 MW reduce G load and A. No Change generation by 620 MW, Event restore line and restore G. Mitigation load *Gen A adjusted to balance network load Back to Case Index Electric Power Group. 2013. All rights reserved. 12. Power Flow Model - 8 Bus System Load Trip Event: 600 MW Load Loss at D Load: 6000 MW (Buses B, D, E, F, G and H). A D Generation: 6000 MW (Buses A, C and D). B C Key Phase Angle Paths: 200 ~ Phase Angle BASE LOAD TRIP. 2400. ~. 1000 ~ 2600 A-G 10 8 . E F A-E 7 5 . Generation Reduction: A-D 6 3 . 600 MW 800 1000. G H 0. A-D Phase Angle decreases from 6 to 3 . 1200 2800. ACTION: Generation Load Trip Redispatched No Change Event Mitigation Back to Case Index Electric Power Group. 2013. All rights reserved. 13. Power Flow Model - 8 Bus System Generation Trip Event: 600 MW Gen Loss at C Load: 6600 MW (Buses B, D, E, F, G and H).

8 A D Generation: 6600 MW (Buses A, C and D). B C Key Phase Angle Paths: 200 ~ Phase Angle BASE GEN TRIP. 3600. ~. 400 ~ 2600 A-G 10 11 . E F A-E 7 8 . Generation Pickup: A-D 6 9 . 600 MW 800 1000. G H 600. A-D Phase Angle increases from 6 to 9 . 1200 2800. ACTION: Gen Trip Redispatch No Change Event Mitigation Back to Case Index Electric Power Group. 2013. All rights reserved. 14. Power Flow Model - 8 Bus System Cascade Loss of A-G and B-C Lines Event: 2 Lines Tripped Load: 6600 MW (Buses B, D, E, F, G and H). A D Generation: 6600 MW (Buses A, C and D). B C Key Phase Angle Paths: Phase Angle BASE CASCADE. 200 ~. 3000. ~. 1000 ~ 2600 A-G. A-E. 10 . 7 . 48 . 17 . E F A-D 6 26 . voltage at Bus G drops to PU. 800 1000. G H 600 A-G Phase Angle difference increased by 38 to 48 ;. voltage at G drops to PU. 1200 2800 ACTION: PU PU Reduce load or add voltage A-G and B-C. support to restore Tripped No Change voltage and Event prevent further Mitigation cascading Back to Case Index Electric Power Group.

9 2013. All rights reserved. 15. Power Flow Model - 8 Bus System Cascade Mitigation Load Shed Event: 2 Lines Tripped Load: 6600 MW (Buses B, D, E, F, G and H). A D Generation: 6600 MW (Buses A, C and D). B C Key Phase Angle Paths: Phase Angle CASCADE MITIGATION. 200 ~. 1600. ~. 1000 ~ 2600 A-G. A-E. 48 . 17 . 21 . 10 . E F A-D 26 9 . Generation Reduction: voltage at Bus G drops to PU. 1400 MW 800 1000. G H 600 A-G Phase Angle difference increased by 38 to 48 ; voltage at G drops to PU. 800 1800. ACTION: PU PU Reduce load at G and H to A-G and B-C. Load Reduction: restore voltage , Tripped No Change 400 MW at G, 1000 MW at H restore A-G line, Event restore load Mitigation Back to Case Index Electric Power Group. 2013. All rights reserved. 16. Power Flow Model - 8 Bus System Cascade - Mitigation - Switch Shunt Caps and Shed Load Event: 2 Lines Tripped Load: 6600 MW (Buses B, D, E, F, G and H).

10 A D Generation: 6600 MW (Buses A, C and D). B C Key Phase Angle Paths: Phase Angle CASCADE MITIGATION. 200 ~. 2370. ~. 1000 ~ 2600 A-G. A-E. 48 . 17 . 30 . 12 . E F A-D 26 17 . voltage at Bus G drops to PU. 800 1000. G H 600 A-G Phase Angle difference Switch on increased by 38 to 48 ;. shunt caps voltage at G drops to PU. 570 2800 ACTION: 100 MVAR Switch in 100. PU PU. MVAR at G to A-G and B-C. restore voltage , Tripped No Change reduce 630 MW. Event load, restore A-G. Mitigation line, restore load Back to Case Index Electric Power Group. 2013. All rights reserved. 17. Wide Area Monitoring Focus On Phase Angle Difference Between Sources and Sinks Source Sink A D. B C. Grand Coulee 200 ~ Niagara 3000. ~. 1000 ~ 2600. E F. NYC. West 800 1000 Texas TVA. Devers G H 600. Central Texas 1200 2800. Electric Power Group. 2013. All rights reserved. 18. Wide Area Monitoring Phase Angle Displays Focus On Phase Angle Difference Between Sources and Sinks Arrow shows Phase Angle Difference Angle Difference Display between two PMUs may not represent a Trends transmission line Incident Indicator Polar Chart - Common Screenshot of RTDMS Real Time Dynamics Monitoring System Reference Angle Electric Power Group.


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