1 Social development Papers Paper Number 36. June 2001. Social Analysis Selected Tools and Techniques Richard A. Krueger Mary Anne Casey Jonathan Donner Stuart Kirsch Jonathan N. Maack First printing: June 2001. This publication was developed and produced by the Social development Family of the World Bank. The Environment, Rural development , and Social development Families are part of the Environmentally and Socially Sustainable development (ESSD) Network. The Social development Family is made up of World Bank staff working on Social issues.
2 Papers in the Social development series are not formal publications of the World Bank. They are published informally and circulated to encourage discussion and comment within the development community. Copies of this paper are available from: Social development Department The World Bank 1818 H Street, , MSN MC5-507. Washington, 20433 USA. Fax: 202-522-3247. E-mail: Contents Acknowledgments iv Contributors v 1. Introduction to the Issues 1. 2. Designing and Conducting Focus Group Interviews 4. Richard A. Krueger and Mary Anne Casey 3.
3 Using Q-Sorts in Participatory Processes: An Introduction to the Methodology 24. Jonathan C. Donner 4. Ethnographic Methods: Concepts and Field Techniques 50. Stuart Kirsch 5. Scenario Analysis : A Tool for Task Managers 62. Jonathan N. Maack iii Acknowledgments This publication is a collaboration between We gratefully acknowledge the valuable members of the Social development Family in comments provided by David Marsden, Anis the World Bank and academicians outside the Dani, and Judith Edstrom. Alicia Hetzner Bank.
4 It was made possible in part by the edited the volume, and it was desktopped by Danish Trust Fund, which has supported the Gaudencio Dizon. Social development Family in the development of Tools and Techniques for Social assessments. iv Contributors Mary Anne Casey Richard A. Krueger Consultant Professor and Evaluation Leader 1494 Idaho Avenue, West University of Minnesota St. Paul, MN 55108 St. Paul, MN 55108. USA USA. Tel.: (651) 647-4952 Tel.: (612) 624-6754. Fax: (651) 647-4307 Fax: (612) 625-2798. Email: Email: Jonathan C.
5 Donner Jonathan N. Maack ontheFRONTIER, a Monitor Group Company Consultant 2 Canal Park Social development Department Cambridge, MA 02141 World Bank USA 1818 H Street, , Rm. MC5-244. Tel.: (617) 252-2540 Washington, 20433. Fax: (617) 761-3603 USA. Email: Tel: (202) 458-7463. Fax: (202) 522-3247. Stuart Kirsch Email: Visiting Assistant Professor Department of Anthropology University of Michigan 500 S. State Street Ann Arbor, MI 48109. USA. Tel.: (734) 764-2292, -7274. Fax: (734) 763-6077. Email: v vi 1. Introduction to the Issues Increasing importance is being attached to scenario Analysis will enable diverse groups of facilitating dialogues among stakeholders in stakeholders to identify the key drivers of development projects and programs, to devel- change behind a development process and is opment interventions, and to increasing the particularly useful in translating stakeholders'.
6 Voice of the poor in policymaking at all levels. expressed needs into development strategy. This volume selects four Tools and Techniques These Techniques are four among many in that provide rigorous methods for eliciting use by the World Bank and other development information from stakeholders to ensure that partners. The methods already in use for the information can feed into World Bank development include Rapid Rural Appraisal, projects and programs. Participatory Rural Appraisal, Gender Analy- Social analysts working in development face sis, Appreciative Inquiry,2 Systematic Client three challenges.
7 The first is to draw out Consultation, Beneficiary Assessment, and information from stakeholders, who can These methods all have their own provide understanding both of disenfranchised literature and practice, which are not replicated groups and how power works in any Social here. Most of these methods are well docu- The second challenge is to identify mented in The World Bank Participation and verify patterns in the data and to under- The Techniques presented in the stand the underlying logic that results in a current volume also can be used to flesh out the pattern's being reproduced.
8 Understanding the approaches developed by the Bank's Poverty logic underlying patterns will enable the Reduction and Economic Management Net- analyst to identify the sets of incentives neces- work (PREM) Public Sector, and Poverty sary to change patterns of behavior the key Divisions. These PREM approaches include task of development . The third challenge faced assessing political commitment, poverty- by analysts is to translate for development mapping, and participatory poverty assess- agencies what the actors' expressed interests ments.
9 The four Techniques presented in the mean in terms of development objectives. this volume provide means to implement the The first of the four Techniques presented in PREM approaches. this volume the focus group provides a In choosing to use one technique rather popular and flexible way to meet the first than the other, a task manager must make a challenge, and guidance on ways to system- trade-off. The choice of technique will vary atize the data received. The Q-sort methodol- according to the stage of application in the ogy will not provide as much guidance on how project cycle, the budget and the time avail- to ask questions.
10 However, it provides a able, and the breadth and depth of Analysis rigorous methodology by which to analyze required. Using more than one method can patterns in the survey data and reveal the increase the reliability of the results. There is a mental models of the survey participants. danger in single technique fundamentalism;. Ethnographic methods provide guidance on all none of these Techniques is a panacea for all three challenges. The fourth technique situations. The Tools described here are not 1. Social Analysis : Selected Tools and Techniques Table 1.