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Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics

Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics This page intentionally left blank Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics Third Edition Stan Gibilisco McGraw-Hill New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto Copy right 20 , 19 7, 19 3 by The McGraw-Hil Com p anies, Inc. Al rights res v d. Manuf ct red in the United Sta es of Am erica. Except as perm it ed under the United Sta es Copy right Act of 1976, no part of this publicat on m a y be rep oduc or distr bu e in any form or by any m eans, or stored in a dat b se or ret i val sy stem , withou the prio writ en perm is on of the publisher. 0- 7 1389. The m a terial in this eBo k also ap e rs in the print version of this ti le: 0- 7 13.

Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics Third Edition Stan Gibilisco McGraw-Hill New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul

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Transcription of Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics

1 Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics This page intentionally left blank Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics Third Edition Stan Gibilisco McGraw-Hill New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto Copy right 20 , 19 7, 19 3 by The McGraw-Hil Com p anies, Inc. Al rights res v d. Manuf ct red in the United Sta es of Am erica. Except as perm it ed under the United Sta es Copy right Act of 1976, no part of this publicat on m a y be rep oduc or distr bu e in any form or by any m eans, or stored in a dat b se or ret i val sy stem , withou the prio writ en perm is on of the publisher. 0- 7 1389. The m a terial in this eBo k also ap e rs in the print version of this ti le: 0- 7 13.

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3 Use of this work is subject to thes term s. Except as perm it ed under the Copy right Act of 1976 and the right to store and re triev one copy of the work, y ou m a y not decom p ile, disa em ble, rev s engi r, rep oduc , m odify , creat e derivat works based upon, transm it, distr bu e, dis em inate, sel , publish or sublicen the work or an y part of it withou McGraw-Hil s prio conse t. You m a y use the work for y our own no c m m e rcial and pers onal use; any other use of the work is stric ly prohib ted. Your right to use the work m a y be term inated if y ou fail to com p ly with thes term s. THE WORK IS PROVIDE "AS IS." McGRAW-HIL AND ITS LICENSOR MAKE NO. GUAR NTE S OR WAR NTIES AS TO THE AC UR Y, ADEQU CY OR COMPLET N S. OF OR RESULT TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUD G ANY.

4 INFORMAT THA CAN BE ACESD THROUG THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR. OTHERWIS , AND EXPR S LY DISCLA M ANY WAR NTY, EXPR S OR IMPL ED, INCLUD G BUT NOT LIM TED TO IMPL ED WAR NTIES OF MERCHANT BIL Y OR. FITNES FOR A PARTICUL PUR OSE. McGraw-Hil and its licensor do not war nt or guar nte tha the functio s contai ed in the work wil m et y our requi m e nts or tha its operati n wil be uni ter p d or er o fre . Neith r McGraw-Hil nor its licensor shal be liab e to y ou or any one els for any inac ur y , er o or om is on, rega dl s of cause, in the work or for any dam a ges resulting ther f om . McGraw-Hil has no respon ib l ty for the conte of any inform ation ac es d throug the work. Under no cir um stance shal McGraw-Hil and/or its licensor be liab e for any ind rect, inc de tal, special, punit ve, consequ tial or sim ilar dam a ges tha result fro m the use of or inab l ty to use the work, ev n if any of them has be n advise of the pos ib l ty of su ch dam a ges.

5 This lim ita on of liab ty shal ap ly to any claim or cause whatsoev r whet her such claim or cause arise in contra , tor or otherwis . DOI: 10. 36/ 7 89. To Tony, Tim, and Samuel from Uncle Stan v This page intentionally left blank Contents Preface xix Part 1 Direct current 1 Basic physical concepts 3. Atoms 3. Protons, neutrons, and the atomic number 4. Isotopes and atomic weights 4. Electrons 5. Ions 5. Compounds 9. Molecules 10. Conductors 11. Insulators 11. Resistors 13. Semiconductors 14. Current 15. Static Electricity 15. Electromotive force 16. Nonelectrical energy 18. Quiz 19. 2 Electrical units 23. The volt 23. Current flow 24. The ampere 26. Resistance and the ohm 26. Conductance and the siemens 28. vii viii Contents Power and the watt 29.

6 Energy and the watt hour 31. Other energy units 33. ac Waves and the hertz 34. Rectification and fluctuating direct current 35. Safety considerations in electrical work 37. Magnetism 38. Magnetic units 39. Quiz 40. 3 Measuring devices 44. Electromagnetic deflection 44. Electrostatic deflection 46. Thermal heating 47. Ammeters 48. Voltmeters 49. Ohmmeters 51. Multimeters 53. FET and vacuum-tube voltmeters 54. Wattmeters 54. Watt-hour meters 55. Digital readout meters 56. Frequency counters 57. Other specialized meter types 57. Quiz 60. 4 Basic dc circuits 65. Schematic symbols 65. Schematic diagrams 67. Wiring diagrams 68. Voltage/current/resistance circuit 68. Ohm's Law 69. Current calculations 69. Voltage calculations 71. Resistance calculations 71.

7 Power calculations 72. Resistances in series 73. Resistances in parallel 74. Division of power 75. Resistances in series-parallel 75. Resistive loads in general 77. Quiz 77. 5 Direct-current circuit analysis 82. Current through series resistances 82. Voltages across series resistances 83. Contents ix Voltage across parallel resistances 85. Currents through parallel resistances 86. Power distribution in series circuits 88. Power distribution in parallel circuits 88. Kirchhoff's first law 89. Kirchhoff's second law 91. Voltage divider networks 92. Quiz 95. 6 Resistors 99. Purpose of the resistor 99. The carbon-composition resistor 102. The wirewound resistor 103. Film type resistors 104. Integrated-circuit resistors 104. The potentiometer 105. The decibel 107.

8 The rheostat 109. Resistor values 110. Tolerance 110. Power rating 110. Temperature compensation 111. The color code 112. Quiz 114. 7 Cells and batteries 118. Kinetic and potential energy 118. Electrochemical energy 118. Primary and secondary cells 119. The Weston standard cell 120. Storage capacity 120. Common dime-store cells and batteries 122. Miniature cells and batteries 124. Lead-acid cells and batteries 125. Nickel-cadmium cells and batteries 125. Photovoltaic cells and batteries 127. How large a battery? 128. Quiz 130. 8 Magnetism 134. The geomagnetic field 134. Magnetic force 135. Electric charge in motion 136. Flux lines 136. Magnetic polarity 137. Dipoles and monopoles 139. x Contents Magnetic field strength 139. Permeability 142. Retentivity 142.

9 Permanent magnets 143. The solenoid 144. The dc motor 145. Magnetic data storage 146. Quiz 149. Test: Part 1 153. Part 2 Alternating current 9 Alternating current basics 165. Definition of alternating current 165. Period and frequency 165. The sine wave 167. The square wave 167. Sawtooth waves 167. Complex and irregular waveforms 169. Frequency spectrum 170. Little bits of a cycle 172. Phase difference 173. Amplitude of alternating current 173. Superimposed direct current 175. The ac generator 176. Why ac? 178. Quiz 178. 10 Inductance 183. The property of inductance 183. Practical inductors 184. The unit of inductance 185. Inductors in series 185. Inductors in parallel 186. Interaction among inductors 187. Effects of mutual inductance 188. Air-core coils 189.

10 Powdered-iron and ferrite cores 190. Permeability tuning 190. Toroids 190. Pot cores 192. Filter chokes 192. Inductors at audio frequency 193. Inductors at radio frequency 193. Transmission-line inductors 193. Contents xi Unwanted inductances 195. Quiz 195. 11 Capacitance 199. The property of capacitance 199. Practical capacitors 201. The unit of capacitance 201. Capacitors in series 202. Capacitors in parallel 203. Dielectric materials 204. Paper capacitors 204. Mica capacitors 205. Ceramic capacitors 205. Plastic-film capacitors 206. Electrolytic capcitors 206. Tantalum capacitors 206. Semiconductor capacitors 207. Variable capacitors 207. Tolerance 209. Temperature coefficient 210. Interelectrode capacitance 210. Quiz 211. 12 Phase 215. Instantaneous voltage and current 215.


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