1 8. TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT . IN THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY. Sam Carlson Cheick Tidiane Gadio > Introduction > Theoretical Principles and Methodology > Content of PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Programs > Motivation and Incentives Certification by Ministry of Education (Extrinsic). Recognition and Time Allocation by Supervisors (Extrinsic). Reduced Isolation and Increased PROFESSIONAL Satisfaction (Intrinsic). Enhanced Productivity (Intrinsic). Becoming a Trainer (Extrinsic and Intrinsic). > Training of Other School Community Members Administrators Students Parents > Costs and Funding > Technology as a Means for Offering PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Models for Online PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Advantages of Technology Use Not a Panacea Economies of Scale > Future Trends Increasing Demand for TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT in the Use of Technology New Technologies and E-Learning > Recommendations to Teachers > Conclusion > Annex: World Links TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Program INTRODUCTION Traditional one-time TEACHER training workshops have not TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT is absolutely essential if been effective in helping teachers to feel comfortable using technology provided to schools is to be used effectively.
2 Technology or to integrate it successfully into their teaching. Simply put, spending scarce resources on informational Instead, a new paradigm is emerging that replaces training technology hardware and software without financing with lifelong PROFESSIONAL preparedness and DEVELOPMENT of TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT as well is wasteful. This approach includes at least three dimensions: Experience around the world in developing, industrialized, > Initial preparation/training (preservice) that provides and information-based countries has shown that TEACHER teachers with a solid foundation of knowledge; compe- training in the use and application of technology is the key tency in teaching, classroom management, and organi- determining factor for improved student performance (in zation skills; mastery of the subject matter they will terms of both knowledge acquisition and skills DEVELOPMENT teach; and proficiency in using a variety of educational enabled by technology).
3 Educational technology is not, and resources, including technology. never will be, transformative on its own it requires teachers > Workshops, seminars, and short courses (inservice) that who can integrate technology into the curriculum and use it offer structured opportunities for acquisition of new to improve student In other words, computers can- teaching skills and subject matter knowledge, as well not replace teachers teachers are the key to whether tech- as skills DEVELOPMENT in the use of technology in the nology is used appropriately and effectively. classroom, that are government-certified and linked to teachers' PROFESSIONAL career DEVELOPMENT . That said, designing and implementing successful TEACHER > Ongoing pedagogical and technical support for teachers PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT programs in the application of as they address their daily challenges and responsibilities. technology is neither easy nor inexpensive.
4 There are more cases of inadequate and ineffective training programs than While technology increases teachers' training and profes- there are success stories. Moreover, success stories are not sional DEVELOPMENT needs, it also offers part of the solution. automatically transferable to other situations, and the total Information and communication technologies (ICTs) can body of experience and knowledge in this field is in its improve preservice TEACHER training by providing access to infancy. While some people may know more than others in more and better educational resources, offering multimedia this area, there are few if any true experts. This calls for simulations of good teaching practice, catalyzing TEACHER -to- humility, innovation, a willingness to fail, ongoing evalua- trainee collaboration, and increasing productivity of nonin- tion, sharing of both positive and negative experiences, and structional tasks. ICTs also can enable inservice TEACHER constant revision of TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT pro- PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT at a distance, asynchronous learn- grams related to technology.
5 Ing, and individualized training opportunities. Finally, ICTs can overcome teachers' isolation, breaking down their class- Even if students could learn independently how to use tech- room walls and connecting them to colleagues, mentors, nology to enhance their learning and skills DEVELOPMENT , curriculum experts, and the global TEACHER community. with little or no involvement from their teachers, they are highly unlikely to have those opportunities if teachers do not As has been pointed out elsewhere in this book, technology let them have access to technology. Teachers remain the and TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT in its use is best intro- gatekeepers for students' access to educational opportunities duced in the context of broader educational reform, which afforded by technology: they cannot and should not be embraces a shift away from TEACHER -centered, lecture-based ignored. Moreover, providing technical skills training to instruction toward student-centered, interactive, construc- teachers in the use of technology is not enough.
6 Teachers tivist learning. This has consequences for reform of curricu- also need PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT in the pedagogical la, examinations, provision of educational resources, and application of those skills to improve teaching and learning. teachers' PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT . Indeed, one of the most exciting aspects of information and communication technol- ogy is its role as a catalyst for such educational reform. Sam Carlson. , is Executive Director of World Links, whose mission This chapter begins with an examination of the theoretical is to improve educational outcomes, economic opportunities, and global principles and methodologies underlying such programs. understanding for youth in developing countries, through the use of ICTs. The specific content of such programs is then discussed, Cheick Tidiane Gadio, , is Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic after which the issue of teachers' motivation and incentives of Senegal.
7 He has extensive experience in the use of ICTs for DEVELOPMENT , and holds a doctorate in communications from Ohio State University. to participate in PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT programs related 119. TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT to technology is addressed. The importance of training addi- When designing or implementing any TEACHER PROFESSIONAL tional school community members is stressed, and recom- DEVELOPMENT program for technology, it is important to situ- mendations are offered for overcoming the persistent prob- ate that program within the context of a theoretical frame- lem of insufficient funding for TEACHER PROFESSIONAL devel- work for adult learning. For purposes of this chapter, a the- opment. Next, the potential of technology as a medium for oretical framework, developed by Reeves and Reeves5 is used, delivering TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT programs is based on 10 dimensions of interactive learning. Each of these examined, followed by a discussion of future trends in dimensions is presented as a continuum, with contrasting TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT .
8 Finally, because most of values at either end. TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT in the this chapter is directed at educational policy makers design- use of technology should be designed and implemented to ing TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT programs, a series of move teachers (and, eventually, students) toward the right- recommendations is provided specifically for teachers con- hand end of this continuum (see Table ). sidering PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT programs in the use of technology. This framework emphasizes the potential of Web-based instruction to contribute to pedagogical reform, rather than THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES AND technology's rich multimedia features or its ability to access METHODOLOGY information resources around the world. Stated more simply, Most teachers want to learn to use educational technology technology can promote effective instruction that is more stu- effectively, but they lack the conceptual framework, time, dent-centered, interdisciplinary, more closely related to real- computer access, and support necessary to do A well- life events and processes, and adaptive to individual learning planned, ongoing PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT program, ground- styles.
9 Such instruction encourages DEVELOPMENT of higher- ed in a theoretical model, linked to curricular objectives, order thinking and information-reasoning skills (rather than incorporating formative evaluation activities, and sustained memorization of facts) among students, and socially con- by sufficient financial and staff support is essential if teachers structed (collaborative) learning, all of which are increasingly are to use technology effectively to improve student required in today's knowledge-based global economy. This TABLE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR ADULT LEARNING. OBJECTIVE. INTERACTIVE LEARNING END OF END OF. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10. DIMENSIONS CONTINUUM CONTINUUM. Pedagogical Philosophy Instructivist Constructivist Learning Theory Behavioral Cognitive Goal Orientation Sharply Focused General Task Orientation Academic Authentic Source of Motivation Extrinsic Intrinsic TEACHER Role Didactic Facilitative Meta-Cognitive Support Unsupported Integrated Collaborative Learning Unsupported Integral Strategies Cultural Sensitivity Insensitive Respectful Structural Flexibility Fixed Open 120.
10 Technologies for Education potential of technology to improve instruction needs to be practices and how they might do things differently with integrated (modeled) into the design and delivery of TEACHER technology. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT programs in the use of technology. Perhaps most important for the purpose of teachers' profes- Such an approach also means that learning materials need sional DEVELOPMENT , technology implies a shift in the to be in several formats: print, CD-ROM, e-mail attachments, TEACHER 's role from being the sole source of knowledge and online (HTML and Java), and even DVD. It also implies a instruction to being a facilitator of students' learning, which need to develop both synchronous and asynchronous is acquired from many sources. This is often referred to as a modalities, so that teachers can take advantage of training shift from being the sage on the stage to the guide on the opportunities when they have the time, which is not side.