1 The Lighting 10:10 Uhr Seite 11st edition , July 2004 The Lighting 10:21 Uhr Seite 2 Chapter 1 Lighting fundamentalsChapter 2 Recommended values for indoor and outdoor lightingNEW:Based on the new European standardsChapter 3 LuminairesChapter 4 Lamps and ballastsChapter 6 Quickplan Calculating luminaire quantitiesChapter 8 Economic efficiency calculationChapter 5 Lighting and room management,Emergency lightingChapter 9 Technical informationChapter 10 NotesChapter 7 Lighting refurbishmentThe Lighting 10:21 Uhr Seite 10:21 Uhr Seite 2 What is light? ..3 Basic parameters used in Lighting ..4 5 Luminous flux ..4 Luminous intensity ..5 Illuminance ..5 Luminance ..5 General quality criteria for Lighting ..6 7 The right light traditional and new quality criteria ..6 Illuminance definition of terminology ..6 7 Glare glare limitation ..7 Lighting technology ..8 9 Light colour ..10 Colour rendition ..10 Chapter 1 Lighting fundamentals 8:43 Uhr Seite 1 8:43 Uhr Seite 2 What is light?
2 Light is that part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is perceivedby our day we see in colour, while at night we can only see in shadesof 1 / 3 What is light?What does the human eye see?10510010-510-10 Wavelength [m]Relative spectralbrightness perceptionTelevision, VSWV isible lightMedium wavesRadio wavesMicrowavesInfraredUltravioletX-rays Gamma [nm]650750 Wavelength [m]NightDayThe Lighting Handbook 8:43 Uhr Seite 3 Luminous fluxThe luminous flux describesthe quantity of light emitted by a light luminous efficiency is the ratio of the luminous flux to the electrical powerconsumed (lm/W).It is a measure of a lamp s economic Chapter 1 Basic parameters used in lightingLuminous flux Luminous intensity Illuminance LuminanceLuminous fluxLumen [lm]Luminance L[lm/(sr*m2)]=[cd/m2]Illuminance ELux [lm/m2]=[lx]Luminous intensity I Candela [lm/sr]=[cd]I = L = EL = IAE = AAbbreviation: phiUnit:lmlumenThe Lighting Handbook 8:43 Uhr Seite 4 Chapter 1 / 5 Luminous intensityThe luminous intensitydescribes the quantity of lightthat is radiated in a is a useful measurementfor directive Lighting elementssuch as reflectors.
3 It is repre-sented by the luminous inten-sity distribution curve (LDC).Abbreviation: Unit:cdcandelaIlluminanceIlluminancedesc ribes thequantity of luminous flux fallingon a surface. It decreases bythe square of the distance(inverse square law). Relevantstandards specify the requiredilluminance ( EN 12464 Lighting of indoor work-places ).Illuminance:E(lx) =luminous flux (lm)area (m2)Abbreviation:EUnit:lxluxLuminanceThe luminanceis the onlybasic Lighting parameter that is perceived by the specifies the brightness of a surface and is essentiallydependent on its reflectance(finish and colour).Abbreviation:LUnit:cd/m2 The Lighting Handbook 8:43 Uhr Seite 56/ Chapter 1 General quality criteria for Lighting The right light traditional and new quality criteriaNEWNEWQ uality criteriaQuality criteriaSufficient illumination levelAppropriate colour renditionHarmonious brightness distributionGlare limitationAvoidance of reflectionsGood modellingCorrect light colourPersonal controlLight as an interior design elementChanging Lighting situationsDaylight integrationEnergy efficiencyTRADITIONALTRADITIONALI lluminance definition of terminologyEach term corresponds to the new European standards (see Chapter 2 / 2).
4 Illuminance maintenance value Em:Value that the illuminancelevel must not fall below in the visual task task area:Illuminance levels are specified for specificvisual tasks and are designed for the area in which these maytake place. If the precise location is not known, then the wholeroom or a specific working area is used to define it. The visualtask area may be a horizontal, vertical or inclined immediately surrounding the visual task area:Here the illuminance may be one level lower than in the visual taskarea ( 300 lx to 500 lx).Maintenance factor:The initial value multiplied by the mainten-ance factor gives the illuminance maintenance value. The main-tenance factor accounts for the reduction in luminous flux fromlamps, luminaires and room surfaces in the installation, and canbe determined on a case-by-case maintenance schedule (the cleaning and maintenanceintervals for the lamps and installation) must be also the chapter on Economic efficiency calculation.
5 The Lighting Handbook 8:43 Uhr Seite 6effectremedyChapter 1 / 7 Glare glare limitationDirect glareReflected glarecause luminaires without glare control very bright surfaces loss of concentration more frequent mistakes fatigue luminaires with limited luminance levels blinds reflective surfaces incorrect luminaire arrangement incorrect workstation position loss of concentration more frequent mistakes fatigue matching luminaire to workstation (layout) indirect Lighting matt surfacesrelative illuminance (%)operating time150125100755025initial valuemainten- ancevalueMaintenance value = maintenance factor x initial valueThe Lighting Handbook 8:43 Uhr Seite 78/ Chapter 1 Lighting technologyUnder the new European standard for interior workplace lightingEN 12464, (psychological) glare is assessed by the unified glarerating method (UGR), which is based on a formula for takes account of all the luminaires in a system contributing to the sensation of glare.
6 UGR tables derived from this formula areprovided by the manufacturers for glare Quickplan tables in Chapter 6 and the Lighting cataloguescontain reference values for specific room UGR method takes account of all the luminaires in thesystem that contribute to the glare sensation (2) as well as thebrightness of walls and ceilings (1). It produces a UGR two methods the one set out in DIN 5035 and the onedefined in EN 12464 produce comparable limits (UGRL), that must not be exceeded: 16 Technical drawing 19 Reading, writing, training, meetings,computer-based work 22 Craft and light industries 25 Heavy industry 28 Railway platforms, foyersUGR = 8 log 0,25Lb L2 P2(1) (2)()The Lighting Handbook 8:43 Uhr Seite 8 Chapter 1 / 9 The previously used luminance limiting curve method defined inDIN 5035 assesses the mean luminance of the luminaires over a beam angle of 45 to 85 . The new European standard sets UGR = 19 as the maximum permissible value for offices, whichis equivalent to the luminance limiting curve for 500 lx in Qualityclass 75 65 55 45 A = 45 = 85 ahs8643218103104234456 82 3 Luminance L in cd/m2 Quality classA1231000200075015005001000750<30050 0 <3002000 1000500 <3002000 1000500 <300for nominal illuminance (lx)UGRL131619222528 The Lighting Handbook 8:43 Uhr Seite 910/ Chapter 1 Colour renditionColour rendition index RaDaylightIncandescent lampSodium vapour high-pressure lamp 90 80 89 70 79 60 69 40 59 20 39 Compact fluorescent lampFluorescent lampMercury vapour high-pressure lampMetal halide lampLight colourThe light colour describes the colour appearance of the temperatureAppearanceAssociationwwup to 3,300 Kreddishwarmnw3,300 K 5,300 Kwhiteintermediatetwabove 5,300 Kblue-ishcoolThe light colour sets the underlying mood of the room!
7 Application examples:Ra 90: colour inspectionRa80 89: officesRa70 79: electronics industryRa60 69: assembly workRa40 59: fabrication shopRa20 39: warehouses840Ra 80 Colour temperature 4,000 K (nw)Display format on fluorescent lampsExample 840:The Lighting Handbook 8:43 Uhr Seite 10 Standard values for Lighting of indoor and outdoor workplaces and sports facility Lighting ..2 Indoor workplacesTraffic zones and general areas inside buildings ..3 Industrial activities and crafts ..3 7 Offices ..7 Retail premises ..7 Places of public assembly ..8 Educational premises ..8 9 Health care premises ..9 10 Transportational areas ..10 11 Sports facilities ..11 12 Outdoor workplacesGeneral circulation areas ..13 Airports ..13 Building sites ..13 Canals, locks and harbours ..13 Farms ..13 Fuel filling service stations ..13 Industrial sites and storage areas ..14 Off-shore gas and oil structures ..14 Parking lots ..14 Petrochemical and other hazardous industries.
8 14 15 Power, electricity, gas and heat plants ..15 Railway areas ..15 Saw mills ..15 Shipyards and docks ..16 Water and sewage plants ..16 Chapter 2 Standard values for indoor and outdoor Lighting 8:45 Uhr Seite 1 Em gives the illuminance maintenance values specified in theEuropean standards which partially or completely replacenational standards ( DIN 5035, Austrian standard O 1040,Swiss Lighting standard SLG 8912, DIN 67526). Lighting of indoor workplaces , EN 12464-1 (April 2003) Lighting of outdoorwork places , pr EN 12464-2 Sports facility Lighting , EN 12193 (September 1999)(see also Definition of terminology , Chapter 1 / 6)Illuminance levels must not fall below the Emmaintenancevalues in the visual task area. If the precise location is notknown, the limit should be applied to the whole room or aspecific working for an office task area:The maintenance factorscan be determined on a case-by-case basis from the manufacturer s data (see also Chapter 8).
9 The maintenance factors and schedules for Zumtobel Staffluminaires are given in the Quickplan tables (Chapter 6).Where no individual maintenance data is available, the followingvalues are recommended as reference maintenance factors formodern technology and three-yearly in aclean atmosphere, and in very dirty 12464 specifies that the Lighting designer must documentthe maintenance factor and maintenance the upper limit for direct glare. The UGR value calculatedin the design process must lie below this (the Quickplan tablesgive the UGR figure for the luminaire used in a medium-sizereference room).Rais the lower limit for the colour rendition index. The Raof theselected lamp must be equal to or greater than this values for Lighting of indoor andoutdoor workplaces and sports facility lightingheight = mtaatask areatask areauser mThe Lighting Handbook 8:45 Uhr Seite 2 Traffic zones and general areas inside buildingsTraffic zones Circulation areas and corridors1002840 Stairs, escalators, travolators1502540 Loading ramps/bays1502540 Rest, sanitation and first aid rooms Canteens, pantries2002280 Rest rooms1002280 Rooms for physical exercise3002280 Cloakrooms, washrooms, bathrooms, toilets2002580 Sick bay5001980 Rooms for medical attention5001690 Control rooms Plant rooms, switch gear rooms2002560 Telex, post room, switchboard5001980 Store rooms, cold stores Store and stockrooms1002560 Dispatch packing handling areas3002560 Storage rack areas Gangways: unmanned20 40 Gangways.
10 Manned1502260 Control stations1502260 Industrial activities and craftsAgriculture Loading and operating of goods, handling equipment and machinery2002580 Buildings for livestock50 40 Sick animal pens; calving stalls2002580 Feed preparation; dairy; utensil washing2002580 Bakeries Preparation and baking3002280 Finishing, glazing, decorating5002280 Cement, cement goods, concrete, bricks Drying502820 Preparation of materials; work on kilnsand mixers2002840 General machine work3002580 Rough forms3002580 Ceramics, tiles, glass, glassware Drying502820 Preparation, general machine work3002580 Enamelling, rolling, pressing, shapingsimple parts, glazing, glass blowing3002580 Grinding, engraving, glass polishing,shaping precision parts, manufactureof glass instruments7501980 Chapter 2 / 3 Type of interior,task or activityEmUGRLRaThe Lighting Handbook 8:45 Uhr Seite 34/ Chapter 2 Grinding of optical glass, crystal, hand grinding and engraving7501680 Precision work decorative grinding,hand painting10001690 Manufacture of synthetic precious stones15001690 Chemical, plastics and rubber industry Remote-operated processing installations50 20 Processing installations with limited manualintervention1502840 Constantly manned work places in processing installations3002580 Precision measuring rooms, laboratories5001980 Pharmaceutical production5002280 Tyre production5002280 Colour inspection10001690 Cutting, finishing, inspection7501980 Electrical industry Cable and wire manufacture3002580 Winding: large coils3002580 medium-sized coils5002280 small coils7501980 Coil impregnating3002580 Galvanising3002580 Assembly work.