1 uv led . Presented by RadTech . The Association for UV & EB Technology eBook #1. UV-LED Presented by RadTech . CONTENTS. The Association for UV & EB Technology This eBook is a compilation of articles from the RadTech Report the official publication of RadTech North America 3 10 47. UV-LEDs and Curing UV-LED Overview Part I Measuring the Output Applications: Technology Operation and of Ultraviolet Light and Market Developments Measurement Emitting Diodes This paper provides a broad overview of In an effort to provide a better This article focuses on understanding recent UV and visible-LED technology understanding of UV-LED technology, and measuring the output of UV-LEDs. improvements and discusses market this article includes some key principles By Jim Raymont and developments and the impact that and technical information regarding Abhinav Kashyap these developments may have on the the science and engineering behind development of UV-LED systems for UV- Curing applications.
2 UV-LEDs. By Jennifer Heathcote 53. The UV-LED Paradigm Shift 21. By Robert F. Karlicek, Jr. This paper suggests a number of questions that are fundamental to Editors-In-Chief UV-LED Basics Part II measuring UV-LED performance. Casey Cordon, DKSH North America Curing Systems The answers to these questions can Chris Miller, Estron Chemical determine if current measurement This article is the second installment Editorial Board solutions will work, need to be modified in a three-part series designed to Susan Bailey, Brewer Science or if a new class of UV-measurement Brian Cavitt, Abilene Christian University consolidate key principles and technical devices will best address the needs of Syed Hasan, BASF Corporation information regarding the science and its users. Molly Hladik, Brewer Science engineering behind UV-LEDs. Mike Idacavage, Esstech Inc.
3 By Paul Mills and Jim Raymont By Jennifer Heathcote 59. Marc Jackson, Melrob 33. Stephen Lapin, PCT Engineered Systems Sudhakar Madhusoodhanan, INX Digital Dick Stowe, Heraeus Noblelight Fusion UV. Huanyu Wei, FiberMark NA UV-LED Overview Part III The State of UV-LED Curing : Sunny Ye, 3M Corporation Jim Zawicki, Sartomer USA Diode Evolution and An Investigation of RadTech International Manufacturing Chemistry and Applications Officers This abridged article is the third This paper discusses the characteristics President of UV-LED lamps; importance of installment in a three-part series Don Duncan, Wikoff Color Corporation properly formulating chemistries;. designed to consolidate key principles President-Elect benefits to end-users; commercial Peter Weissman, Quaker Chemical and technical information regarding applications of UV-LEDs; and future Treasurer the science and engineering behind expected developments.
4 Paul Elias, Miwon North America Inc. UV-LEDs. Secretary By Ed Kiyoi By Jennifer Heathcote 64. Eileen Weber, Red Spot 38. Immediate Past President Howard Ragin, DSM Coating Resins Board Members UV-LED Curing Systems: Market Overview of UV-LED Applications: Not a Tony Bean, Sun Chemical Tony Carignano, Allnex Not Created Equal Casey Cordon, DKSH North America Jennifer Heathcote, Integration Technology The authors discuss some of the One-Size-Fits-All Approach Steve Lapin, PCT Engineered Systems architectural and design trade-offs UV-LED technology is not a one-size- Im Rangwalla, ESI. UV-LED lamp makers have at their fits-all substitute for conventional UV. Michael Rose, Sartomer USA. Mike Sajdak, INX International disposal; noting that UV-LED isn't for arc and microwave Curing . What works Eileen Weber, Red Spot every application and not all UV-LED for one application does not necessarily At-Large lamp systems are created equal.
5 Work for another. Businesses must Rick Baird, The Boeing Company By Sara Jennings, Bonnie Larson invest time and resources to develop Joshua Lensbouer, Armstrong World specific UV-LED solutions for each Industries Inc. and Chad Taggard Chris Miller, Estron Chemical market application. UV-LED Focus Group Co-Chairs By Jennifer Heathcote JoAnn Arceneaux, Allnex Beth Rundlett, DSM. UV-LEDs and Curing Applications: Technology and Market Developments T. By Robert F. Karlicek, Jr. he light-emitting diode (LED) lighting, white LEDs are becoming industry is undergoing rapid bright enough to replace mercury technological and market lamps and sodium vapor lamps in changes driven by the development street lighting applications. There is of efficient, white LEDs for liquid also progress in developing UV-LEDs crystal displays (LCDs) and lighting. for Curing applications, but progress UV-LEDs are poised to benefit from is being made at a much slower these developments (including pace.)
6 The LEDs that are used for higher efficiency, higher output UV Curing and lighting applications power and lower cost), largely are technically similar, as are the because UV and white LEDs are challenges of using them in either technically similar. However, there UV Curing or lighting applications. are market-related challenges Regardless of whether LEDs emit in the UV or are used for lighting, both This article summarizes the technology and market markets are demanding the same trends related to LEDs and their impact on the things from LED manufacturers: More light (or UV) output development of UV-LEDs for Curing applications. Higher operating efficiency (more electrical input converted to light). slowing continued improvements in Lower cost for LEDs UV-LED performance. This article LED system designs more suitable provides a broad overview of recent for putting the right amount of light UV and visible-LED technology (or radiation) where needed improvements and discusses market developments and the impact that These market demands are these developments may have on the driving rapid technical changes development of UV-LED systems for in LED designs; improvement in UV- Curing applications.
7 Performance; and reductions in cost. Innovation at the system level is also Introduction proceeding rapidly, as lighting fixture LEDs are beginning to challenge designers and UV-system integrators existing lamps used for lighting and wrestle with how best to implement UV- Curing applications. In general the visible or UV-LEDs that are 2013 RadTech International. 3. commercially available today. LEDs are a disruptive technology promising Figure 1. superior efficiency and reliability for creating UV and visible radiation when Approximate efficiency versus wavelength compared to conventional UV and for nitride LEDs visible lamps. Because of this LED. potential, LED technology and even the business structures and supply chain models associated with LEDs and the systems that use them are evolving rapidly. This is especially true for visible-LEDs and LED system designers in the LCD display and general lighting markets where the revenue potential is huge and there is a strong focus on replacing conventional incandescent and mercury-based lighting sources.
8 These technical and market developments (driven primarily LEDs can be made at any wavelength along the curve, and by visible-LED manufacturers and the colored markers are positioned at commercially important customers) present both opportunities wavelengths where relative size of the marker suggests market and challenges for the development of size for LEDs at those wavelengths. If UV-LED efficiencies improve to the levels of today's 450nm LEDs, they would be UV-LED-based Curing systems. This more than twice as efficient as mercury lamps and offer a wider article summarizes the technology and range of UV wavelengths. market trends related to LEDs and their impact on the development of UV-LEDs for Curing applications. the wavelength to move from blue into Regardless of wavelength, the LED Technical Overview the UV. In principle, any wavelength design of an LED is extremely LEDs are made from crystalline from 250 nm (UVC) to 570 nm complex, requiring the crystal growth compound semiconductors resembling (greenish yellow) can be manufactured of many extremely thin (just a few silicon (used for conventional by adjusting the semiconductor atoms thick) layers of various alloys electronics).
9 Unlike silicon used composition. of these nitride semiconductors in computer and memory chips, With today's technology, the on a substrate. The design, purity compound semiconductors can emit intensity of light (visible or UV) and crystalline quality of these light when energized. LEDs are emitted by an LED depends strongly layers control not only the emission monochromatic (single color) emitters on the wavelength (Figure 1). Blue wavelength but also the output and the wavelength (color of the light) LEDs are the most efficient of all power and lifetime of the LED. The from an LED depends on the chemical the nitride LEDs. The intensity LED and LED systems supply chain composition of the semiconductor drops quickly as the wavelength gets from semiconductor to applications material. For both UV Curing and shorter, especially below 365 nm is shown in Figure 2.
10 The substrate lighting applications, the semiconductor where there are special technical and with the crystalline layers grown on material is made from alloys of AlN, manufacturing challenges related to it is typically called an LED wafer GaN and InN (aluminum nitride, growing high aluminum content nitride (Figure 2A). After it is grown, standard gallium nitride and indium nitride, materials needed for UV emission. semiconductor processing technology respectively). Increasing the indium As research continues on short- is used to convert the wafer into concentration causes the LEDs to wavelength UV semiconductors, thousands of small LED chips emit blue or green light. Reducing the these problems will be solved and (Figure 2B). These chips are tested indium concentration and increasing much higher power UVC-LEDs will at the manufacturer for wavelength the aluminum concentration causes become available.