1 Vibratoryrollerhandbookwith standardized termsand definitionsSECOND EDITIOND eveloped by theCompaction and Paving Machinery Technical Committee (CPMTC)Bituminous and Aggregate Equipment Bureau (BAEB)of the Construction Industry Manufacturers Association111 East Wisconsin Avenue. Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202. (414)272-0943 AcknowledgementThis handbook was developed by the compaction andPaving Machinery Technical Committee (CPMTC) of theConstruction Industry Manufacturers Association (CIMA),with the support of the Bituminous and AggregateEquipment Bureau (BAEB) - a product-oriented Bureauof CIMA. It represents the cooperative efforts andcontributions of technical experts from the many membercompanies which manufacture, among a broad range ofequipment for the bituminous industry, compactionequipment of all word about CIMACIMA is the based international trade grouprepresenting the producers of construction machinery andconstruction-related services used worldwide in thegeneral construction, housing, roadbuilding, mining,energy and forestry fields.
2 For more than 80 years, CIMAhas acted as a forum for its member companies todiscuss and act upon issues of industry-wide concern,including product safety, machine performance standards,government liaison, export and trade activity, parts andservice information, training and the special concerns ofthe smaller and medium-sized manufacturer, amongothers. CIMA also produces the CONEXPO@ InternationalConstruction Equipment Exposition, one of the world'slargest machinery @ 1994 - Construction Industry Manufacturers AssociationPagePurpose of Handbook3 Scope of HandbookHistory of CompactionVibratory Compaction7 Description of a vibratory RollerRepresentative Types of vibratory RollersRecommended Machine SpecificationsStandard Specifications LabelTerms & DefinitionsMetric Conversion TableThis handbook on vibratory ROLLERS is designedto serve the following purposes:To reaffirm, promote and establish uniform, recognized andaccepted terminology, and machine specifications for the guidanceof manufacturers, distributors, buyers and users in comparing,specifying and presenting data relative to vibratory rollers.
3 To serve as a basis for common language and understandingamong manufacturers, distributors, buyers and users indetermining the basic types, features, operating characteristicsand applications of vibratory rollers;To provide means for the identification of common types ofvibratory rollers;To increase the knowledge of individuals involved withcompaction and compaction machines, and to enhance theirability to communicate and carry out their responsibilitiesefficiently and effectively;To provide useful text and reference material for code-writingagencies, regulatory agencies, engineers, marketing personnel,contractors, equipment operators, schools, students, and othersinterested in, or involved with, the field of handbook provides standardized terminology pertainingto vibratory rollers and their operation, standardized parametersfor designating the specifications and characteristics ofvibratory rollers, and other information of general interest tothose associated with, or interested in, vibratory rollers andtheir handbook is not intended to establish machinerequirements nor to promote the acceptance or use of anyspecific type of compactor - vibratory or otherwise.
4 It is likewisenot intended to be an exhaustive treatise on the subject ofvibratory handbook covers ride-on, walk-behind and from coverage are all static rollers, and all vibratoryplate and rammer excluded from coverage in this handbook are safety-related matters, which are covered in manufacturers' manuals,and in CIMA's roller Compactor Safety Manual, one of a seriesof operator safety manuals developed and published by CIMA,covering various types of construction compaction may seem to some of usto be a recent technological innovation. Whilevibratory compaction is relatively new, thetheory and application of soil compaction is asold as recorded history building declined. The construction of an18th-century road in England consisted of mendigging ditches along each side of theproposed road and throwing the excavated dirtinto the middle of the road bed, hoping thatpassing vehicles would act as compactors.
5 Asticky situation existed during heavy early civilization, soil compaction methodsemployed the dynamic forces of movinganimals and men. The motion of a foot (orhoof) is similar in some respects to the motionof a padded 1815 John London MacAdam, aScottish engineer, introduced a pavingtechnique which greatly advanced roadbuilding in England. MacAdam's method wasto mix small pebbles with clay or rock surface was then troweled smooth andcompacted. With the proper mixture thismaterial became almost as hard as 1869 a new innovation from England,known as the steam roller , was tried in NewYork. This early type of smooth-wheel rollerproved to be very effective in highwayconstruction for nearly a the Romans came the advancement ofcivilization and the art of road building. TheRoman method of road construction was tofirst make a cut the width of the planned road,deep enough to hold the fill.
6 The earth at thebottom of the cut was made more solid throughthe use of heavy rammers, and a foundationlayer of stones was laid on this compactedbase. This layer was then covered with a9-inch layer of concrete. Next a 6-inch layerof fine concrete was laid, in which were setblocks of lava or other type of stone. This finalcourse was then rolled, using a cylindricalstone pulled by an attached yoke (the firsttowed-type roller ). Some sections of theseRoman roads are still being used photograph below shows a Chinesemethod of soil compaction which employedthe theory of variable amplitude. It isreasonable to assume that this method iscenturies the fall of the Roman Empire, the art ofPhoto courtesy of Engineering News-Record4 Method of dynamic soil compaction by tamping used in ChinaVarious theories of, and testing methods for,soil compaction evolved in the 1920's, but itwas not until 1933 that R.
7 R. Proctorpublished his basic theories dealing with theeffect of moisture content on compactionresults. Proctor devised testing methods fordetermining the optimum moisture content,and also procedures for determiningcompaction in the popularity of these vibratory rollerscontinued at a rather steady rate into the1960's, when their popularity rose latter sixties saw the introduction of avibratory roller for compacting hot mix asphaltpavements. During the next few years a seriesof rapid advancements produced vibratoryrollers which experienced outstandingsuccess on both granular and cohesive soils,as well as on asphalts. Today, vibratory rollersare widely used and accepted for compactingasphalt pavements because they achieve therequired densities faster and are therebycapable of increasing production.
8 The largedouble drum vibratory rollers, which firstappeared in 1969, provided even furtherproduction capabilities for the main linerolling of asphalt compaction of soils was firstemployed in Germany in the early 1930's inconnection with the construction of itshighway system. The first type of vibratorycompactor was the 1 ~-ton base plate unit,followed by a crawler type of compactorweighing about 25 tons, manufactured by theLosenhausen many different types and variations ofvibratory rollers are manufactured and used tomeet widely varying soil and field conditions,from granular soils to asphaltic first towed type of vibratory rollers for soilcompaction in the United States wasmanufactured in the 1940's. Self-propelleddesigns followed in the late fifties. The growth,An early type of vibratory rollerTests conducted around the worldcommercially, academically and on the jobhave shown the benefits of vibratorycompaction for achieving density, depthpenetration and economy of compaction .
9 Bothmachine and material factors contribute to itssuccess. Many such factors exist; they areinterrelated; and each varies in effect andimportance with differing material and effectiveness also dependsgreatly upon the material being variables include the type of materialmoisture or asphalt content, lift thickness,temperature, and underlying support. Inaddition, the characteristics of the materialbeing compacted change as the rating ofvibratory rollersDue to the many variables mentioned above inachieving compaction performance, there is noknown specification which indicates the overalleffectiveness of a vibratory roller . The bestcomparative rating between vibratory rollers isthe resulting density, surface smoothness andrate of production on a specific drum's static weight applies a compactingforce; however, by inducing vibration of thatdrum, the compacting force is increased.
10 Themomentary, high cyclic forces of the vibratingdrum overcome frictional and cohesiveresistance of the material being compacted,facilitating greater factors which affect vibratorycompaction efficiency include machineweight, drum weight and construction, sprungweight, machine suspension, vibratoryfrequency, amplitude, the vibration-inducingmechanism, and speed of vibratory roller is a compactor having adrum* (roll or horizontal cylinder) used todensify (compact) soil, asphalt or othermaterials through the application of combinedstatic and dynamic forces (weight andvibrations) to increase the load-bearingcapacity of the drum. The amplitude and frequency ofdrum movements cover a wide range of drum(s) and drive wheels may be smoothor may include projections designed forspecific compaction purposes.