1 For more information about the KNOWLEDGE PAPERS. Urban development Series, contact: Urban development and Local Government Unit what A WASTE : A GLOBAL REVIEW OF SOLID WASTE management . Sustainable development Network The World Bank 1818 H Street, NW. Washington, DC, 20433. USA. what A WASTE . Email: A Global Review of Solid WASTE management Website: March 2012, No. 15. Previous Knowledge Papers in This Series Lessons and Experiences from Private Sector Initiatives Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS into Urban/ in Slum Upgrading Water (AFTU1 & AFTU2) Projects Judy L.
2 Baker and Kim McClain, Nina Schuler, Alicia Casalis, Sylvie Debomy, May 2009, No. 8. Christianna Johnnides, and Kate Kuper, September 2005, No. 1 The Urban Rehabilitation of the Medinas: The World Bank Experience Occupational and Environmental in the Middle East and North Africa Health Issues of Solid WASTE Anthony G. Bigio and Guido Licciardi, management : Special Emphasis on May 2010, No. 9. Middle and Lower-Income Countries Sandra Cointreau, July 2006, No. 2 Cities and Climate Change: An Urgent Agenda A Review of Urban development Issues Daniel Hoornweg, December 2010, No.
3 10. in Poverty Reduction Strategies Judy L. Baker and Iwona Reichardt, Memo to the Mayor: Improving Access June 2007, No. 3 to Urban Land for All Residents . Fulfilling the Promise Urban Poverty in Ethiopia: A Multi- Barbara Lipman, with Robin Rajack, Faceted and Spatial Perspective June 2011, No. 11. Elisa Muzzini, January 2008, No. 4. Conserving the Past as a Foundation Urban Poverty: A Global View for the Future: China- World Bank Judy L. Baker, January 2008, No. 5 Partnership on Cultural Heritage Conservation Preparing Surveys for Urban Katrinka Ebbe, Guido Licciardi Upgrading Interventions: and Axel Baeumler, September 2011, No.
4 12. Prototype Survey Instrument and User Guide Guidebook on Capital Investment Ana Goicoechea, April 2008, No. 6 Planning for Local Governments Olga Kaganova, October 2011, No. 13. Exploring Urban Growth management : Insights from Three Cities Mila Freire, Douglas Webster, and Christopher Rose, June 2008, No. 7. Cover photo on right and on this page: Conakry landfill, Guinea (Charles Peterson photographer). Cover photo on far left: separate containers for recyclables and non-recyclables, Barcelona, Spain (Perinaz Bhada-Tata photographer).
5 KNOWLEDGE PAPERS. what A WASTE . A Global Review of Solid WASTE management Daniel Hoornweg and Perinaz Bhada-Tata March 2012, No. 15. Urban development Series Produced by the World Bank's Urban development and Local Government Unit of the Sustainable development Network, the Urban development Series discusses the challenge of urbanization and what it will mean for developing countries in the decades ahead. The Series aims to explore and delve more substantively into the core issues framed by the World Bank's 2009 Urban Strategy Systems of Cities: Harnessing Urbanization for Growth and Poverty Alleviation.
6 Across the five domains of the Urban Strategy, the Series provides a focal point for publications that seek to foster a better understanding of (i) the core elements of the city system, (ii) pro-poor policies, (iii) city economies, (iv). urban land and housing markets, (v) sustainable urban environment, and other urban issues germane to the urban development agenda for sustainable cities and communities. Copyright World Bank, 2012. All rights reserved Urban development & Local Government Unit World Bank 1818 H Street, NW.
7 Washington, DC 20433 USA. This publication is a product of the staff of the World Bank Group. It does not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. This note is provided for information only. The World Bank has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs and citations for external or third-party sources referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.
8 TABLE OF CONTENTS Maxim Tupikov Foreword vii Acknowledgements viii Executive Summary ix Abbreviations and Acronyms xi Country Classification According to Region xii Country Classification According to Income xiii 1. Introduction 1. 2. Global WASTE management Practices 4. 3. WASTE Generation 8. 4. WASTE Collection 13. 5. WASTE Composition 16. 6. WASTE Disposal 22. 7. WASTE and the Environment 25. A Note on the Reliability of Solid WASTE Data 32. iv URBAN development SERIES KNOWLEDGE PAPERS. Annexes A. Map of Regions 36.
9 B. Map of Income Distribution 38. C. Availability of MSW Data by Country 40. D. Countries Excluded for Lack of Data 45. E. Estimated Solid WASTE management Costs 46. F. MSW Generation Data for Cities Over 100,000 47. G. MSW Collection Data for Cities Over 100,000 63. H. MSW Disposal Methods for Cities Over 100,000 71. I. MSW Composition Data for Cities Over 100,000 78. J. MSW Generation by Country Current Data and Projections for 2025 80. K. MSW Collection Rates by Country 84. L. MSW Disposal Methods by Country 87.
10 M. MSW Composition by Country 90. N. IPCC Classification of MSW Composition 93. O. The Global City Indicators Program 94. References 95. what A WASTE : A GLOBAL REVIEW OF SOLID WASTE management v List of Tables 1. Comparison of solid WASTE management practices by income level 5. 2. Generators and types of solid WASTE 7. 3. Current WASTE generation per capita by region 9. 4. WASTE generation projections for 2025 by region 10. 5. Current WASTE generation per capita by income level 10. 6. WASTE generation projections for 2025 by income 11.