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ZOOLOGY - Textbooks Online

ZOOLOGY . HIGHER SECONDARY - SECOND YEAR. Untouchability is a sin Untouchability is a crime Untouchability is inhuman TAMIL NADU. TEXTBOOK CORPORATION. College Road, Chennai - 600 006. Government of Tamilnadu First Edition - 2005. Reprint - 2006. Chairperson Prof. T. SARGUNAM STEPHEN. P. G and Research Dept. of ZOOLOGY Govt. Arts College Nandanam, Chennai - 600 035. Reviewers Dr. K. Vijayaraman Dr. K. Ramalingam Reader Head, P. G. Dept. of ZOOLOGY Reader and Research Dept. of ZOOLOGY Periyar EVR Govt. Arts College Govt. Arts College, Nandanam, Trichy - 620 020. Chennai - 600 035. Dr. P. Daisy Reader and Head, Dept. of ZOOLOGY and Biotechnology Holy Cross College Trichy - 620 002. Authors Tmt. Kannaki Prabakaran Dr. (Tmt) Flankit Thomas in ZOOLOGY PGT in ZOOLOGY Sri Vidyala Model CSI Jessie Moses Mat. and School Hr. Sec. School, , Chennai - 17. Anna nagar, Chennai - 600 040. Thiru. T. Sekar Thiru N. Kumaravel in ZOOLOGY in ZOOLOGY Higher Sec School Higher Choolaimedu, Chennai - 600 094.

ZOOLOGY HIGHER SECONDARY - SECOND YEAR Untouchability is a sin Untouchability is a crime Untouchability is inhuman TAMIL NADU TEXTBOOK CORPORATION College Road, Chennai - 600 006.

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Transcription of ZOOLOGY - Textbooks Online

1 ZOOLOGY . HIGHER SECONDARY - SECOND YEAR. Untouchability is a sin Untouchability is a crime Untouchability is inhuman TAMIL NADU. TEXTBOOK CORPORATION. College Road, Chennai - 600 006. Government of Tamilnadu First Edition - 2005. Reprint - 2006. Chairperson Prof. T. SARGUNAM STEPHEN. P. G and Research Dept. of ZOOLOGY Govt. Arts College Nandanam, Chennai - 600 035. Reviewers Dr. K. Vijayaraman Dr. K. Ramalingam Reader Head, P. G. Dept. of ZOOLOGY Reader and Research Dept. of ZOOLOGY Periyar EVR Govt. Arts College Govt. Arts College, Nandanam, Trichy - 620 020. Chennai - 600 035. Dr. P. Daisy Reader and Head, Dept. of ZOOLOGY and Biotechnology Holy Cross College Trichy - 620 002. Authors Tmt. Kannaki Prabakaran Dr. (Tmt) Flankit Thomas in ZOOLOGY PGT in ZOOLOGY Sri Vidyala Model CSI Jessie Moses Mat. and School Hr. Sec. School, , Chennai - 17. Anna nagar, Chennai - 600 040. Thiru. T. Sekar Thiru N. Kumaravel in ZOOLOGY in ZOOLOGY Higher Sec School Higher Choolaimedu, Chennai - 600 094.

2 Sowcarpet, Chennai - 600 079. Price : Rs. This book has been prepared by The Directorate of School Education on behalf of the Government of Tamilnadu. This book has been printed on 60 GSM Paper. Preface Biology or Life science has made rapid progress. Advancements in several fields of Science and Technology have provided the tools to understand life processes. As humanity faces several problems related to population growth, environmental degradation, energy crisis, epidemic diseases, food production and species extinctions the challenges faced by the biologists in finding appropriate solutions to such issues has become his/. her sacred duty. Thus the future remedial measures for ensuring human sur- vival and biosphere safeguarding shall require a vast army of personnel with a sound knowledge of Biology. Hence the scope for future biologists is evergrowing. The contents of this book provide basic informations on several fields of biology that have become life supporting disciplines.

3 The students are exposed to fascinating fields such as Human Physiology, Medicine, Microbiology, Immunology, Bio-informatics, Environmental Biology, Genomics, Aquaculture, Medical Laboratory Techniques, Livestock management etc. More information related to these fields can be obtained from appropriate websites and reference books. Contents in this book have been prepared in such a way that the students can have a glimpse of several disciplines and might help them to decide on their future career and further given study plans. Further, the materials given are technical information that provide knowledge for to-day's living. T. Sargunam Stephen Chairperson Biology ( ZOOLOGY ). Text book writing committee. iii Standard XII - ZOOLOGY Syllabus - (Theory). I : Human physiology - Nutrition : Introduction - Carbohydrates - Proteins - Lipids - Vitamins - Minerals - Water - Balanced diet - Calorie values (ICMR standards) - Obesity - Hyperglycemia - hypoglycemia - Malnutritions.

4 Digestion : Enzymes and enzyme action - Brief account of following - Dental caries - Root canal therapy - Peptic ulcer - Hernia - Appendicitis - Gall bladder stone - Liver cirrhosis - Hepatitis. Bones and Joints (Major types) : Fractures - Dislocations - Arthritis - Rickets and osteomalacia - Orthopaedics - Gout. Muscles : Muscle action - Muscle tone - Rigor mortis - Muscle pull (hernia) - Isometric and aserobic exercises (Body building) - Myasthenia gravis. Respiration : Process of pulmonary respiration - Inspiration - Expiration - Exchange of gases at alveolar level - Control of respiration - Pneumonia - Pleurisy - Tubercu- losis - Bronchitis - Breathing exercises Circulation-Functioning of heart-Origin and conduction of heart beat. Artificial pacemaker-Coronary blood vessel and its significance-Myocardial infarction,Angina pectoris-Angiogram,angioplasty and coronary bipass surgery-Ath- erosclerosis-Heart attack-Heart block-ECG and Echo cardiograph-Heart valves Rheu- matic Heart Disease (RHD)-ICCU- Arterial and venous systems-Blood pressure-pulse rate-Heart transplantation Resuscitation in Heart attack (First Aid)-Blood components Function-Plasma-Corpuscles -Blood clotting-Anticoagulants-Thrombo- sis-Embolism-blood related diseases like polycythemia Leukemia-Lymph fluid.

5 Physiological-Co-ordination Systems-Brain-Functioning of different regions-Memory-Sleep-Stroke-Alzhemier's disease-Meningitis/Brain fever Conditioned reflex-Electroencephalography-Right brain-left brain concept-Spinal cord-Functioning- Reflex action-CSF-Chemical co-ordination-Pituitary (Hormones of Adenohypophysis and their regulations)-Thyroid,Parathyroidal hormones-Insulin and Glucagon-Hormones of Adrenal cortex and Medulla-Reproductive Hormones-Problems related to Secretion Non secretion of Hormones. Receptor Organs-Eye-Focussing Mechanism & photo chemistry of retina-Short sightedness-Longsightedness-Optometry-Re tinopathy-Cataract-Lens replacement- Nyctalopia-Eye infection-Conjunctivitis-Glaucuoma-Eye care-EAR-Hearing mechanism- Organ of corti-Hearing impairments and aids-Noise pollution and its importance-SKIN- Melanin-functions-Effect of solar radiations/UV-Skin Grafting-Dematitis-TONGUE-Gus- tatory reception. Excretion-Ureotelism-Urea Biosynthesis (Ornithine Cycle)-Nephron ultrafiltration,tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion-Renal failure-Dialysis Kidney stone formation-Kidney Transplantation-Diabetes.

6 Iv Reproductive system-Brief account of speramtogenesis - Oogenesis Menstrual cycle- Invitro fertilization-Birthcontrol II. Microbiology : Introduction-History of Medical Microbiology-The influence of Pas- teur Koch, and Lister-Virology, Structure, Genetics, Culture and diseases-AIDS and its control-Bacteriology-Structure,Genetics and diseases-Protozoan microbiology-Disease oriented-Larval microbiology-Diseases orinented-Life cycle of Taenia solium- of Micro organism-Anti microbial resistance Chemotherapy. : Innate(Non-specific) Immunity-Anatomical Barriers-Physiological Barriers-Phagocytic Barriers-Lymphoidal organs -Thymus-Bursa of Fabricius-Periph- eral Lymphoid Organs-Lymph nodes-Spleen-Antibodies-Immunoglobulins- Regions of polypepetide chain-Transplantation immunology-Classification of grafts-Genetic ba- sis of organ transplants-Immune system disorder. IV. Modern genetics : Introduction-Scope-Human Genetics karyotyping Chromosome gene mapping, Recombinant DNA technology and segmenting.

7 Genetic diseases-Human Genome project-Cloning-Transgenic organisms Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)-Genetherapy-Bio informatics application-DNA sequenc- ing and protein database- V. Environmental science : Human population and explosion-Issue-Global warming Crisis Green House Effect-Ozone layer depletion Waste mangement-Biodiversiy con- servation (Biosphere reserves) Government and Non Govermental organisations in- volved-Energy crisis and Environmental impact-Poverty and environment-Fresh water crisis and management. VI. Applied biology : Livestock and Management-Dairy-Breeds of cattle-Milch breed- Draught breed-Dual purpose-Common diseases and control-Exotic and cross breeds- Techniques adopted in cattle breeding. Poultry-Farming techniques-Breeds. Farming methods-Poultry diseases-Economic value. Pisciculture-Fish farming-Edible fishes of Tamilnadu. Medical Lab Techniques-Stethoscope-Sphygmomanometer- Heamocytometer-Urine- Sugar analysis-ECG-'PQRST'wave-CTScan-Endoscop ic (Laproscopic) techniques-Ar- tificial pacemaker-Auto analyser-- VII.

8 Theories of evolution : Lamarckism-Neolamarckism-Darwinism-NeoDa rwinism/Mod- ern concept of natural selection-Species concept-Origin of species and Isolating Mecha- nisms VIII. Aquaculture : History-Prospects-Kinds-Pond structure-Bunds-Pond types-Loca- tion-Culture-Physics-Chemical factors-Food-Bionomics of cultivable fishes and fresh- water prawns-Induced breeding-Diseases parasites and control-Ornamental fishes - Culture-Feeding-Mariculture. v SYLLABUS FOR PRACTICAL. ZOOLOGY - (Long Version). STANDARD - XII. 1. Qualitative test for carboydrates, proteins and lipids - 2 test each 2. Test of urea in urine of a mammal 3. Rate of activity of human salivary amylase in relation to temperature and pH. 4. Study of perpared slides - Entamoeba, Scolex of tapeworm, mature proglottis, Red blood corpuscles, white blood corpuscles 5. Models and specimens - Mammalian Brain / model, Eye model, Ear model, Mammalian Kidney - Nephron model, Heart model 6. Instruments / Drugs - 1.

9 Stethescope 2. Sphygmomonometer 3. An eye drop bottle having antibiotic fluid 4. Eye lotion 5. Bifocal eye lens 7. Project Report 1. Visit to Medical Laboratory or Hospital or Research Laboratory 2. Visit to a Dairy or Poultry or Fish farm 3. Visit to a site havintg rain water harvesting vi ZOOLOGY . CONTENTS. PAGE. 1. HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 001. 2. MICROBIOLOGY 116. 3. IMMUNOLOGY 142. 4. MODERN GENETICS 157. 5. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 181. 6. APPLIED BIOLOGY 215. 7. THEORIES OF EVOLUTION 270. 8. AQUACULTURE 286. vii 1. HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY. Introduction Physiology is the study of functioning of organs and organ systems. All physiological activities are aimed at maintenance of homeostasis, living and reproduction. Homeostasis differentiates a living being from the non-living world. It provides the uniqueness for a self- duplicating, genomicized groups of organisms. Homeostatic mechanisms involve stabilizing an optimum level of water, minerals and other components of the body fluids and other thermal regulations.

10 It is achieved by several bio-physical, bio-chemical processes, hormonal secretions and related metabolic modifications. The phenomenon of living is made possible due to several types of evolved organs and their well co-ordinated functions. The functioning of heart as a pumping organ being emotionally controlled is astonishing. The oxygen association and dissociation capabilities of blood pigments, cascading effects of minimal amount of hormones at molecular limits, the process of nervous conduction, analyzing and memory maintaining capacities of the brain, the holistic visual perception of the eye are all wonderful inventions of nature towards a simple process of living. The attainment of a simplified process of sexual reproduction for a complicated, genetically oriented mechanisms for sex cells production and procreation is stunningly marvellous. The orientation of reproductive strategies towards social, environmental and futuristic motives is highly precise and purposeful.


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