1 Control VALVEHANDBOOKT hird EditionFISHER CONTROLS INTERNATIONAL, INCM arshalltown, Iowa 50158 68700 FranceSao Paulo 05424 BrazilSingapore 128461iiCopyright 1965, 1998, 1999, Reprinted in 1999 and 2001. fisher ControlsInternational, Inc. All Rights , ENVIRO-SEAL and FIELDVUE are marks owned by fisher ControlsInternational, Inc., a business of Emerson Process Management. The Emerson logo is atrademark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co. All other marks are the property oftheir respective in to Third EditionControl valves are an increasingly vital component of modern manufacturing aroundthe world. Well selected and maintained Control valves increase efficiency, safety,profitability, and Control Valve Handbook has been a primary reference for more than 30 third edition is a complete revision and update that includes vital information oncontrol Valve performance and the latest technologies.
2 Chapter 1 offers an introduction to Control valves including definitions forcommon Control Valve and instrumentation terminology. Chapter 2 develops the vital topic of Control Valve performance. Chapter 3 covers Valve and actuator types. Chapter 4 describes digital Valve controllers, analog positioners, boosters,and other Control Valve accessories. Chapter 5 is a comprehensive guide to selecting the best Control Valve foran application. Chapter 6 covers the selection and use of special Control valves . Chapter 7 covers desuperheaters, steam conditioning valves , and turbinebypass systems. Chapter 8 offers typical Control Valve installation and maintenance proce-dures. Chapter 9 includes information on Control Valve standards and approvalagencies throughout the world. Chapter 10 offers useful tables of engineering reference data. Chapter 11 includes piping reference data.
3 Chapter 12 is a handy resource for common Control Valve Handbook is both a textbook and a reference on the strongest linkin the Control loop: the Control Valve and its accessories. This book includes exten-sive and proven knowledge from leading experts in the process Control field includ-ing contributions from the ISA and the Crane of ContentsChapter 1. Introduction to Control Valves1.. What Is A Control Valve ?1.. Process Control Terminology2.. Sliding-Stem Control Valve Terminology6.. Rotary-Shaft Control Valve Terminology13.. Control Valve Functions and Characteristics Terminology16.. Other Process Control Terminology18.. Chapter 2. Control Valve Performance23.. Process Variability23.. Dead Band25.. Actuator-Positioner Design27.. Valve Response Time29.. Valve Type And Characterization31.. Valve Sizing36.. Economic Results37.. Summary39.. Chapter 3.
4 Valve and Actuator Types41.. Control Valves41.. Globe Valves41.. Single-Port Valve Bodies41.. Balanced-Plug Cage-Style Valve Bodies43.. High Capacity, Cage-Guided Valve Bodies44.. Port-Guided Single-Port Valve Bodies44.. Double-Ported Valve Bodies44.. Three-Way Valve Bodies45.. of ContentsviRotary Valves45.. Butterfly Valve Bodies45.. V-Notch Ball Control Valve Bodies46.. Eccentric-Disk Control Valve Bodies47.. Eccentric-Plug Control Valve Bodies47.. Control Valve End Connections48.. Screwed Pipe Threads48.. Bolted Gasketed Flanges48.. Welding End Connections49.. Valve Body Bonnets49.. Extension Bonnets50.. Bellows Seal Bonnets51.. Control Valve Packing52.. PTFE V-Ring52.. Laminated and Filament Graphite52.. USA Regulatory Requirements for Fugitive Emissions53.. Characterization of Cage-Guided Valve Bodies56.. Characterized Valve Plugs58.. Valve Plug Guiding59.
5 Restricted-Capacity Control Valve Trim60.. Actuators60.. Diaphragm Actuators61.. Piston Actuators61.. Electrohydraulic Actuators63.. Manual Actuators63.. Rack and Pinion Actuators64.. Electric Actuators64.. Chapter 4. Control Valve Accessories65.. Positioners65.. Other Control Valve Accessories67.. Limit Switches69.. Solenoid Valve Manifold69.. Supply Pressure Regulator70.. Pneumatic Lock-Up Systems70.. Fail-Safe Systems for Piston Actuators70.. Electro-Pneumatic Transducers70.. Electro-Pneumatic Valve Positioners72.. PC Diagnostic Software72.. Chapter 5. Control Valve Selection73.. Valve Body Materials74.. Designations for the High Nickel Alloys75.. Pressure-Temperature Ratings for Standard Class76.. ASTM A216 Grade WCC Valves76.. of ContentsviiASTM A217 Grade WC9 Valves77.. ASTM A217 Grade C5 Valves78.. ASTM A351 Grade CF3 Valves79.. ASTM A351 Grade CF8M and ASTM A479 Grade UNS S31700 Valves80.
6 Pressure-Temperature Ratings for ASTM A216 Cast Iron Valves82.. Pressure-Temperature Ratings for ASTM B61 and B62 Cast Bronze Valves83.. Class Designation and PN Numbers83.. Face to Face Dimensions for Flanged Globe Style Control Valves85.. Face to Face Dimensions for Buttweld End Globe Style Control Valves87.. Face to Face Dimensions for Socket Weld End Globe Style Control Valves88.. Face-to-Face Dimensions for Screwed-End Globe-Style Control Valves89.. Face-to-Centerline Dimensions for Raised Face Globe-Style Angle Control Valves89.. Face-to-Face Dimensions for Separable Flanged Globe-Style Control Valves89.. Face-to-Face Dimensions for Flangeless, Partial-Ball Control Valves90.. Face-to-Face Dimensions for Single Flange (Lug-Type) and Flangeless (Wafer-Type) Butterfly Control Valves90.. Face-to-Face Dimensions for High Pressure Butterfly valves with Offset Design91.
7 Wear & Galling Resistance Chart Of Material Combinations91.. Control Valve Seat Leakage Classifications92.. Class VI Maximum Seat Leakage Allowable93.. Typical Valve Trim Material Temperature Limits93.. Service Temperature Limitations for Elastomers94.. Ambient Temperature Corrosion Information 95.. Elastomer Information 100.. Fluid Compatibility 103.. Control Valve Flow Characteristics107.. Flow Characteristics107.. Selection of Flow Characteristic108.. Valve Sizing109.. Sizing valves for Liquids109.. Abbreviations and Terminology111.. Equation Constants112.. Determining Fp, the Piping Geometry Factor113.. Determining qmax (the Maximum Flow Rate) or DPmax (the Allowable Sizing Pressure Drop)114.. Determining qmax (the Maximum Flow Rate)114.. Determining DPmax (the Allowable Sizing Pressure Drop)114.. Liquid Sizing Sample Problem116.. Sizing valves for Compressible Fluids118.
8 Of ContentsviiiDetermining xTP, the Pressure Drop Ratio Factor120.. Compressible Fluid Sizing Sample Problem No. 1120.. Compressible Fluid Sizing Sample Problem No. 2122.. Representative Sizing Coefficients for Single Ported Globe Style Valve Bodies125.. Representative Sizing Coefficients for Rotary Shaft valves 126.. Actuator Sizing128.. Globe Valves128.. A. Unbalance Force128.. Typical Unbalance Areas of Control Valves128.. B. Force to Provide Seat Load129.. C. Packing Friction130.. Typical Packing Friction Values131.. D. Additional Forces131.. Actuator Force Calculations132.. Rotary Actuator Sizing132.. Torque Equations132.. Breakout Torque132.. Dynamic Torque132.. Typical Rotary Shaft Valve Torque Factors133.. V Notch Ball Valve with Composition Seal133.. High Performance Butterfly Valve with Composition Seal133.. Maximum Rotation133.. Non-Destructive Test Procedures133.
9 Magnetic Particle (Surface) Examination134.. Liquid Penetrant (Surface) Examination134.. Radiographic (Volumetric) Examination134.. Ultrasonic (Volumetric) Examination135.. Cavitation and Flashing135.. Choked Flow Causes Flashing and Cavitation135.. Valve Selection for Flashing Service136.. Valve Selection for Cavitation Service137.. Noise Prediction138.. Aerodynamic138.. Hydrodynamic139.. Noise Control139.. Noise Summary142.. Packing Selection143.. Packing Selection Guidelines for Sliding Stem Valves144.. Packing Selection Guidelines for Rotary Valves145.. Chapter 6. Special Control Valves147.. High Capacity Control Valves147.. Low Flow Control Valves148.. High-Temperature Control Valves148.. Cryogenic Service Valves149.. of ContentsixCustomized Characteristics and Noise Abatement Trims150.. Control valves for Nuclear Service in the USA150.. valves Subject to Sulfide Stress Cracking151.
10 Chapter 7. Steam Conditioning Valves153.. Understanding Desuperheating153.. Technical Aspects of Desuperheating154.. Typical Desuperheater Designs156.. Fixed Geometry Nozzle Design156.. Variable Geometry Nozzle Design157.. Self-Contained Design157.. Steam Atomized Design158.. Geometry-Assisted Wafer Design159.. Understanding Steam Conditioning Valves159.. Steam Conditioning Valve Designs160.. Feedforward Design160.. Manifold Design161.. Pressure-Reduction-Only Design163.. Understanding Turbine Bypass Systems164.. Turbine Bypass System Components164.. Turbine Bypass Valves165.. Turbine Bypass Water Control Valves165.. Electro-Hydraulic System165.. Chapter 8. Installation and Maintenance167.. Proper Storage and Protection167.. Proper Installation Techniques168.. Read the Instruction Manual168.. Be Sure the Pipeline Is Clean168.. Inspect the Control Valve168.