1 IX%. Tehia eot .. IEPVMN RCINCEFCET. r.. K 7. TechnicalAVA. ReotTR-AEMIENT FRICIONER COMCIN. Sprored by h ~ ,~NAVLFACLTENIERINGCOMMAN. 1 orHFeder f alnifor&enial Information Springfield, Va. 22151. This document ha been approved for public release and sia; its distribution is unlimited. TIRE-PAVEMENT FRICTION COEFFICIENTS. Technical Report R-672. Y-F01 5-20-01-012. by Hisao Tomita A. ABSTRACT. An investigation consisting mainly of a literature review and a review of current research done outside NCEL was conducted to determine the and Marine o methods needed to provide safe, skid-resistant surfaces on Navy Corps airfield pavements.
2 Much of the information reported herein serves to update the information contained in NCEL Technical Report R-303. or example, new information is included on friction-measuring methods, corre- lation of the measuring methods, factors affecting friction coefficients, minimum requirements for skid resistance, and methods of improving the skid resistance Gf slippery pavements. However, some new topics which are of recent interest are also discussed in detail. These topics include hydro- planing, the mechanism of rubber friction, the friction associated with various operating modes of aircraft tires, the relationship of friction coefficients to pavement surface texture and to surface drainage of water, and the effects of pavement grooving on hydroplaning and on friction coefficients.
3 All the information from the investigation is summarized, and recommendations are given for research and development efforts needed to provide safe, skid-resistant surfaces for airfield pavements.. \.. his document has been ,d for public release and sale; its distribution is unlimited.. Vi - Ctopies availiable at the Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific &Technicalti. lqfcWItiIn (CFSTi), Sills Building. 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Va. 22151. -- ii - pp CONTENTS. page INTRODUCTION .. 1. Background .. 1. Scope .. 2. TIRE HYDROPLANING PHENOMENON.
4 2. Physical Description of Dynamic Hydroplaning .. 3 '. Hydroplaning Velocity .. 4. Factors Affecting Hydroplaning .. 9. Depth of Water .. 9. Lift Pressure .. 10. MECHANISM OF RUBBER FRICTION .. 14. OPERATING MODES OF AIRCRAFT TIRES AND. ASSOCIATED FRICTION .. 20. Free-Rolling Mode .. 21. Slipping Mode .. 23. Skidding Mode .. 26. FRICTION-MEASURING METHODS .. 27. Stopping-Distance Method .. 28. Deceleration Method .. 30. Skid Trailer Method .. 33. Portable Testers .. 39. CORRELATION STUDIES .. 41. Correlation Between Friction-Measuring Devices.
5 41. Cori iation Between Devices and Aircraft .. 62. 'I |11~. page FACTORS AFFECTING FRICTION COEFFICIENT .. 64. Velocity and Pavement Surface Wetness .. 64. Critical Slip and Skidding Modes .. 67. Tire Pavement Surface Effects .. 68. Traffic and Seasonal Changes .. 89. MINIMUM SKID-RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS .. 95. METHODS TO IMPROVE SKID RESISTANCE .. 98. SUMMARY .. 100. RECOMMENDATIONS .. 102. REFERENCES .. 104. NOMENCLATURE ..109. iv 72 _____. -- - -- _____. INTRODUCTION. Background The Navy has experienced a number 9f aircraft skidding'incidents on airfield runways.
6 Some of these incidents have been the direct result of low friction coefficients between aircraft tires and water- or slush-covered runways. As a result the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory (NCEL) was requested to study the problem in fiscal years 1963 and 1964. The objective of the inves- tigation was to develop a set of criteria from which a reliable and accurate field device could be designed and constructed to measure tire-pavement friction coefficients. A review of the aircraft skidding problem was made, and a thorough literature search was conducted on the subject of tire-pavement friction coefficients.
7 Summarized landing-incident reports for'a 2-year period were reviewed to determine if the magnitude of the friction coefficients was an important factor. The literature review resulted in a state-of-the-art study and covered the skid prevention research of companies and agencies involved in the design and construction of highway and airfie!d pavements and in the design of aircraft, vehicles, brakes, and tires. All results and findings from the investigation were reported by Tomita (1964). The report recommended against developing a field measuring device for the Navy then since the Federal Aviation Agercy was involved in developing a similar device under contract.
8 More recent reports of skidding incidents on Navy and Marine Corps ". airfield runways have shown the need for better methods of providing skid- resistant surfaces to new as well as to old pavements.* For example, a newly constructed runway in Vietnam is closed to aircraft traffic during the monsoon season; lack of braking action was reported by pilots landing on fog-sealed, wet runways at two Navy airfields; and a tanker skidded over a rubber-deposited area and overran a runway at a Navy airfield. In FY-68 NCEL was assigned the task of investigating and developing methods of making new and existing airfield pavement surfaces resistant to the skidding of aircraft, whether the surfaces are wet or dry.
9 This report is the preliminary step of that assignment. - The Tt examples given were related to the author during his investigations. f 1! .t The end results and findings from future research and development efforts are to be incorporated into appropriate Naval Facilities Engineering Command manuals and specifications for distribution to design and field personnel. Scope This report covers many of the important factors involved in friction coefficients as related to pavement surfaces and aircraft tires and brakes. Most of the information was derived from a comprehensive literature review.
10 Emphasis in this report will be placed on updating the information found in Technical Report R-303 (Tomita, 1964) by presenting new information found in recent publications. Some new topics include the phenomenon of hydroplaning, which has been receiving much consideration in recent years;. the mechanism of rubber friction; the relationship of pavement surface texture and surface drainage of water to friction coefficients; and the grooving of pavements to combat hydroplaning and to-increase the friction coefficient. The report also includes recommendations for research and development efforts needed by the Navy to meet-the objective of providing skid-resistant runway surfaces for aircraft operations.