1 Rev Bras Anestesiol REVIEW ARTICLE. 2011; 61: 2: 232-254. Epilepsy and Anesthesia Marcius Vin cius Mulatinho Maranh o, TSA 1, Eni Ara jo Gomes 2, Priscila Evaristo de Carvalho 2. Summary: Maranh o MVM, Gomes EA, Carvalho EP - Epilepsy and Anesthesia . Background and objectives: Epilepsy is one of the most frequent chronic neurological diseases. Although Anesthesia for Epilepsy patients is more common in neurosurgery, this group of patients needs, just as the general population, Anesthesia for different diagnostic and therapeutic pro- cedures.
2 This article aims to address the issues of greatest interest to the anesthesiologist in the perioperative management of epileptic patients undergoing Anesthesia for non-neurosurgical procedures. Content: We discuss relevant aspects of pathophysiology, classification and diagnosis of Epilepsy ; anticonvulsant therapy and interactions with anesthetic drugs; surgery and the ketogenic diet; pro-and anticonvulsant effects of drugs used in Anesthesia ; preoperative evaluation, intra- and postoperative conduct in epileptic patients, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of perioperative seizures.
3 Conclusions: In the perioperative management of epileptic patients is important for anesthesiologists to identify the type of Epilepsy , the fre- quency, severity and the factors triggering the epileptogenic crises; the use of anticonvulsant drugs and possible interactions with drugs used in Anesthesia ; the presence of ketogenic diet and stimulatory of the vagus nerve, and its implications in anesthetic techniques. It is essential the understanding of pro- and anticonvulsant properties of drugs used in Anesthesia , minimizing the risk of seizure activity in the intra- and postopera- tive.
4 Finally, it is important to outline the diagnosis and initiate treatment of seizures, perioperative, which offers lower both morbidity and mortality. Keywords: Epilepsy ; Anesthesia ; Perioperative care; Seizures. [Rev Bras Anestesiol 2011;61(2): 232-254] Elsevier Editora Ltda. INTRODUCTION of 14 years 4. There are few studies on the prevalence and there are no published studies on the incidence of Epilepsy in Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder and may be pro- Brazil. It is estimated that in our country 340,000 new cases gressive in relation to cognitive impairment, frequency and se- of Epilepsy are diagnosed each year with million patients verity of critical events characterized by recurrent seizures 1.
5 With active Epilepsy , and that at least 9 million people have Epilepsy is as old as mankind. It was first described about had at seizure some time in life 5,6. In developed countries, the 3,000 years ago in Akkadian, Mesopotamia (Iraq). The sei- curve of Epilepsy by age shows higher incidence in children zures were attributed to the god of the moon. In the early 17th and the elderly, and it shows higher incidence in young adults century, William Gilbert described the electrical phenomena in developing countries, which probably reflects different eti- responsible for Epilepsy , discarding the mystical and super- ologies.
6 While in developed countries there is a predominance natural theory. The word Epilepsy is derived from the Greek of developmental disorders and idiopathic Epilepsy in children verb pilamvanein (attack, seizure) 2. ( Epilepsy resulting from genetic susceptibility), and the Epilepsy is one of the most frequent neurological diseases, vascular and degenerative processes of aging, in developing only surpassed by strokes 3. It affects about 1% of world popu- countries infectious and parasitic causes, and head trauma lation.
7 The incidence of this disease varies with age, sex, race, contribute to a significant percentage of cases 1,4. It is more type of Epilepsy syndrome and socioeconomic conditions. In common in males and in lower socioeconomic classes 7. It is developed countries, the prevalence of Epilepsy is around important to emphasize that the presence of Epilepsy is high of the population. In developing countries, it ranges from in children with mental retardation, cerebral palsy, autism, to 2% of the population. In the there are two million psychiatric behavior disorders.
8 Approximately 30% of children people with Epilepsy and 300,000 are children under the age with autism may have different types of seizures during ado- lescence 4. The epileptic patient has a higher mortality from unex- Received from the Discipline of Pharmacology, Instituto de Ci ncias Biol gicas (IBC), Uni- versidade de Pernambuco (UPE) - Anesthesiology Service of the Hospital Universit rio pected sudden death, status epilepticus and a high suicide Oswaldo Cruz - CET/SBA do Hospital da Restaura o, Hospital Getulio Vargas and Hospital rate 4.
9 The disease is characterized by a state of hyperactiv- Universit rio Oswaldo Cruz. ity of neurons and brain circuits capable of generating syn- 1. Pharmacolgy Professor of the ICB of UPE; Anesthesiologist of the Hospital Universit rio Oswaldo Cruz; Cor-responsable for CET/SBA of Hospitals Restaura o, Get lio Vargas and chronous electrical discharges, which may manifest itself in Universit rio Oswaldo Cruz; Teaching and Training Commission Member/SBA various forms, since interictal encephalographic discharges 2. Undergraduate Medicine Student UPE.
10 To prolonged seizures with epileptic crises or, in more severe Submitted on June 28, 2010. cases, assuming the form of status epilepticus, a condition Approved on October 20, 2010. characterized by isolated prolonged seizures or by repeat- Correspondence to: ed seizures in short intervals. The interictal discharge cor- Dr. Marcius Vin cius M. Maranh o Rua Manuel Bernardes 134/702 responds, at the cellular level, to synchronized paroxysmal Magdalene 50710-350 Recife, Brazil discharges of certain neuronal population, represented by E-mail: action potential bursts 1.