1 245. ISSN 0041-6436. An international journal of forestry and Forest industries Vol. 66 2015/3. Forest and landscape restoration Enter the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015 app competition! Following the release of FAO's Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) 2015, FAO is launching the 25 years of Forest change: Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015 app competition . Participants are invited to come up with mobile applications that can help better manage our Forest resources and improve understanding of forests worldwide. Submissions will be accepted until The app should be based on the 24:00:00 CET on 21 January 2016. FRA 2015 dataset, available via the First prize is a US$2 000 paid Forest Land Use Data Explorer (FLUDE) assignment with FAO's Forestry online portal: Department to work on dissemination Forest -resources-assessment/ and outreach for the app. A tablet will explore-data/flude/en/. be awarded to up to three runners-up. Target users include the scientific The award ceremony will take place on community, experts, policymakers 21 March 2016, the UN International and/or the general public.
2 Day of Forests. For more information on how to enter, go to Forest -resources-assessment/. app-contest/en/. 245 ISSN 0041-6436. An international journal of forestry and Forest industries Vol. 66 2015/3. Editor: S. Lapstun Editorial Advisory Board: S. Braatz, I. Buttoud, P. Csoka, L. Flejzor, T. Hofer, Contents F. Kafeero, W. Kollert, S. Lapstun, D. Mollicone, D. Reeb, S. Rose, J. Tissari, Editorial 2. P. van Lierop Emeritus Advisers: J. Ball, Bourke, C. Sabogal, C. Besacier and D. McGuire C. Palmberg-Lerche, L. Russo Forest and landscape restoration : concepts, approaches Regional Advisers: F. Bojang, P. Durst, and challenges for implementation 3. Hamid, J. Meza L. Laestadius, K. Buckingham, S. Maginnis and C. Saint-Laurent Unasylva is published in English, French and Before Bonn and beyond: the history and future of Spanish. Free subscriptions can be obtained Forest landscape restoration 11. by sending an e-mail to Subscription requests from institutions L. Janishevski, C. Santamaria, Gidda, Cooper and ( libraries, companies, organizations, Brancalion universities) rather than individuals are Ecosystem restoration , protected areas and preferred to make the journal accessible to biodiversity conservation 19.
3 More readers. All issues of Unasylva are available online E. Thomas, R. Jalonen, J. Loo and M. Bozzano free of charge at Avoiding failure in Forest restoration : the importance of unasylva. Comments and queries are welcome: genetically diverse and site-matched germplasm 29. FAO encourages the use, reproduction and N. Berrahmouni, M. Parfondry, P. Regato and A. Sarre dissemination of material in this information restoration of degraded forests and landscapes in drylands: product. Except where otherwise indicated, guidelines and way forward 37. material may be copied, downloaded and printed for private study, research and teaching M. Sacande, N. Berrahmouni and S. Hargreaves purposes, or for use in non-commercial Community participation at the heart of Africa's products or services, provided that appropriate acknowledgement of FAO as the source and Great Green Wall restoration model 44. copyright holder is given and that FAO's S. Appanah, K. Shono and Durst endorsement of users' views, products or services is not implied in any way.
4 restoration of forests and degraded lands in Southeast Asia 52. The designations employed and the W. Cho and Chun presentation of material in this information restoration of the Baekdudaegan mountains in product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and the Republic of Korea 64. Agriculture Organization of the United Nations C. Daoxiong, G. Wenfu, L. Zhilong and S. Dongjing (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or Transforming China's forests 74. of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation J. Coello, J. Cortina, A. Valdecantos and E. Varela of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, Forest landscape restoration experiences in southern Europe: whether or not these have been patented, does sustainable techniques for enhancing early tree performance 82. not imply that these have been endorsed or C. Rebelo and K. Buckingham recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.
5 Bamboo: the opportunities for Forest and landscape restoration 91. The publications reviewed in Unasylva are V. Gutierrez and Keijzer available on the FAO website ( publications) and can be purchased through Funding Forest landscape restoration using a business-centred approach: an NGO's perspective 99. FAO Forestry 107. Cover: Montana Conservation Corps (MCC). crews, made up of high school and college World of Forestry 108. students from Wind River Indian Reservation, Books 110. help Chicago Botanic Garden interns collect seeds for the Seeds of Success programme in the Lander Field Office area. BLM Wyoming editorial T. he publication of this issue of Unasylva coincides with two in Southeast Asia, an area that has witnessed both resounding important events for forests. The 196 Parties to the United successes and failures. The restoration of the Baekdudaegan area, Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change have a mountain chain that runs through the Korean peninsula, has just convened at the Paris Climate Change Conference to broker also encountered numerous hurdles, as described by Cho and a game-changing agreement on climate change.
6 Also in Paris, the Chun, but has made important progress and could also provide Global Landscapes Forum 2015 is hosting high-level discussions a basis for regional collaboration. on the research and policy behind land-use issues. Forest and Daoxiong, Wenfu, Zhilong and Dongjing focus specifically on landscape restoration is a key piece in the puzzle. reforestation, presenting experimental approaches in China to The Oxford English Dictionary defines restoration as the transform the country's planted forests and degraded lands into action of restoring a thing to a former state or position . Forest close-to-nature forests. and landscape restoration (FLR), however, invests the word with The case of southern Europe, an area that has been subjected to a far greater role than that of simply returning to a past state. On significant degradation and climate-related stressors, is examined a planet where the mark of human activity is almost ubiquitous, in detail by Coello, Cortina, Valedecantos and Varela, who restoration is by necessity a concept that has to take into account emphasize the need to boost support for restoration programmes human well-being and ongoing change.
7 To ensure success. In the opening article of this issue, Sabogal, Besacier and Bamboo could be an interesting solution in some areas, as McGuire explore not only the concept, but also the approaches argued by Rebelo and Buckingham, who explore its potential in available which vary considerably depending on location, tackling the challenges of restoration , notably through innova- scale, size and purpose and the importance of identifying tive approaches involving the private sector. In the final article, the drivers of Forest and land degradation. Their article is fol- Gutierrez and Keijzer look more broadly at the funding options lowed by an overview by Laestadius, Buckingham, Maginnis for FLR, also focusing on how to engage the private sector. and Saint-Laurent of the history of FLR. The movement has In order to succeed in the long term, Forest and landscape clearly evolved significantly from its origins in forestry in the restoration initiatives will need to successfully engage a range 1990s to the ambitious target set by the 2011 Bonn Challenge of stakeholders, from policymakers to local communities and Ministerial Roundtable of restoring 150 million hectares of the from governments to private actors.
8 This issue maps out some world's deforested and degraded lands by 2020. of the progress that has already been made, and the challenges FLR also means regarding the landscape as an integrated whole, that lie ahead. u which implies looking at different land uses together, their connec- tions, interactions and a mosaic of interventions which, together, are expected to lead to restoration being more effective than a single land-use approach. In this light, Janishevski, Santamaria, Gidda, Cooper and Brancalion explore the role of protected areas, emphasizing that these areas must not be seen in isolation, but rather maintained and restored together with other parts of the landscape to ensure connectivity between areas, notably to ensure biodiversity conservation in the face of climate change. restoration initiatives must also ensure that appropriate and genetically diverse planting material is chosen for planting sites. If this is not the case, restoration may fail, although this may become apparent only long after the initiation of the activity, or in the wake of exceptional events, as demonstrated by Thomas, Jalonen, Loo and Bozzano.
9 Several articles look at the specificities of different regions and biomes. Berrahmouni, Parfondry, Regato and Sarre exam- ine approaches to restoring degraded forests and landscapes in drylands, illustrated by a case study in Ica, Peru. Sacande, Berrahmouni and Hargreaves present the experiences of Africa's Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative, and the way in which it builds upon community involvement. Appanah, Shono and Durst also emphasize the importance of local participation in their overview of restoration activities 3. FAO/Gianluigi Guercia Forest and landscape restoration : concepts, approaches and challenges for implementation C. Sabogal, C. Besacier and D. McGuire F. There is an urgent need to Concepts provides, including biological and water- accelerate the recovery of orest and land degradation is a related goods and services as well as degraded ecosystems for the serious problem worldwide, par- land-related social and economic goods benefit of humans and nature ticularly in developing countries.
10 And services (FAO/LADA, ). Forest this requires a comprehensive Approximately one billion people live in degradation refers to a reduction of the and intersectoral approach. degraded areas, which represent 15 percent capacity of a Forest to provide goods and of the Earth's population, and one third of services (FAO, 2011). the world's population is considered to be Continued Forest and land degradation affected by land poses serious obstacles to the elimination C sar Sabogal is Senior Forestry Officer in Land degradation is generally defined of poverty and hunger and the reversal charge of Sustainable Forest Management at as a persistent decline in the provision of biodiversity loss in many parts of FAO. of goods and services that an ecosystem the world today, as well as to the abil- Christophe Besacier is Forestry Officer in the Forest and landscape restoration Mechanism ity of farmers and local communities to team in FAO's Forestry Department. 1. According to ISRIC World Soil Information adapt to the impacts of climate change.