1 Recommendations for Occupational Health and Safety Following Disasters Health risks associated with stagnant water Pools of standing or slow-flowing water provide a breed- preventing mosquitoes from accessing egg-laying hab- ing ground for many insects, including mosquitoes that itats by environmental management and modification;. can transmit diseases. Poor and inadequate sanitation disposing of solid waste properly and removing artifi- facilities due to the emergency can also increase the risk cial man-made habitats.
2 Of disease transmission. stagnant pools should not be applying appropriate insecticides to water storage out- considered a safe source of potable water . In addition, door containers;. efforts should be made to eliminate standing water or using of personal household protection such as win- pools of water which are immediately adjacent to housing dow screens, long-sleeved clothes, insecticide treated structures. materials, coils and vaporizers;. improving community participation and mobilization for Mosquitoes are considered possible vectors for disease.
3 Sustained vector control;. Different species of mosquitoes transmit different diseas- applying insecticides as space spraying during out- es and will breed in different types of water collections. A breaks as one of the emergency vector control natural disaster may alter the typical disease transmission measures;. patterns and periodicity normally seen in an area. active monitoring and surveillance of vectors should be carried out to determine effectiveness of control inter- Two of the key water - associated diseases seen in areas ventions.
4 Most affected by Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) are dengue and leptospirosis. Leptospirosis Dengue Fever Human infection with Leptospira occurs through direct contact with the urine of infected animals or by contact The viruses that cause dengue fever and dengue haem- with a urine-contaminated environment, such as surface orrhagic fever are transmitted by the mosquito Aedes ae- water , soil and plants. The causative organisms have gypti, and, to a lesser extent by Aedes albopictus. Aedes been found in a variety of both wild and domestic animals, aegypti breeds mainly in water collections in artificial con- including rodents, insectivores, dogs, cattle, pigs and tainers in the environment of human settlements, but not horses.
5 Leptospira can gain entry through cuts and abra- in groundwater pools and puddles, nor in swamps or oth- sions in the skin and through mucous membranes of the er large natural bodies of water . eyes, nose and mouth. Human-to-human transmission occurs only rarely. Effective prevention and control of epidemic dengue re- quires control of vectors. Prevention of mosquito- Populations should avoid wading through stagnant water breeding in drinking- water containers should involve cov- that may be leptospirosis-infected, protecting open ering, emptying and cleaning of domestic water storage wounds and cuts, and seeking immediate Health care for containers on a weekly basis.
6 The development of illness or symptoms. Additional prevention and control measures include: For more information, please visit: World Health Organization, water Sanitation Health , World Health Organization, Disease Control in Emergencies, World Health Organization, Leptospirosis World Health Organization, Dengue Typhoon Yolanda Health Cluster Contacts National- Manila: Sub-national- Tacloban: Sub-national- Cebu: Health Cluster Website: h