1 Modeling Network Coded TCP Throughput: A Simple Model and its ValidationMinJi KimMITC ambridge, MA M dardMITC ambridge, MA o BarrosUniversity of PortoPorto, analyze the performance of TCP and TCP with net-work coding (TCP/NC) in lossy wireless networks. We buildupon the simple framework introduced by Padhyeet characterize the throughput behavior of classical TCPas well as TCP/NC as a function of erasure rate, round-trip time, maximum window size, and duration of the con-nection. Our analytical results show that Network codingmasks random erasures from TCP, thus preventing TCP sperformance degradation in lossy networks ( wirelessnetworks).
2 It is further seen that TCP/NC has signifi-cant throughput gains over TCP. Our analysis and simu-lation results show very close concordance and support thatTCP/NC is robust against erasures. TCP/NC is not onlyable to increase its window size faster but also to maintain alarge window size despite the random losses, whereas TCPexperiences window closing because losses are mistakenlyattributed to congestion. Note that Network coding onlymasks random erasures, and allows TCP to react to conges-tion; thus, when there are correlated losses, TCP/NC alsocloses its Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of thecore protocols of today s Internet Protocol Suite.
3 TCP wasdesigned for reliable transmission over wired networks, inwhich losses are generally indication of congestion. This isnot the case in wireless networks, where losses are often dueto fading, interference, and other physical phenomena. Inwireless networks, TCP often incorrectly assumes that thereis congestion within the Network and unnecessarily reducesits transmission rate, when it should have actually transmit-ted continuously to overcome the lossy links. Consequently,TCP s performance in wireless networks is poor when com-pared to the wired counterparts as shown in [1,2].
4 Therehas been extensive research to combat these harmful effectsof erasures and failures; however, TCP even with modifi-cations does not achieve significant improvement. For ex-ample, there has been suggestions to allow TCP sender tomaintain a large transmission window to overcome the ran-dom losses within the Network . However, as we shall showin this paper, just keeping the window open does not leadto improvements in TCP s performance. Even if the trans-mission window is kept open, the sender can not transmitadditional packets into the Network without receiving ac-knowledgments.
5 References [3, 4] give an overview and acomparison of various TCP versions over wireless relief may come from Network coding , which hasbeen introduced as a potential paradigm to operate commu-nication networks, in particular wireless networks. Networkcoding allows and encourages mixing of data at intermediatenodes, which has been shown to increase throughput and ro-bustness against failures and erasures . There are severalpractical protocols that take advantage of Network coding inwireless networks [7 10].In order to combine the benefits of TCP and Network cod-ing,  proposes a new protocol called TCP/NC.
6 TCP/NCmodifies TCP s acknowledgment (ACK) scheme such that itacknowledgesdegrees of freedominstead of individual pack-ets, as shown in Figure 1. This is done so by using the con-cept of seen packets in which the number of degrees offreedom received is translated to the number of consecutivepackets this paper, we present a performance evaluation ofTCP as well as TCP/NC in lossy networks. We adopt thesame TCP model as in  consider standard TCPwith Go-Back-N pipelining. Thus, the standard TCP dis-cards packets that are out-of-order.
7 We analytically showthe throughput gains of TCP/NC over standard TCP, andpresent simulations results that support this analysis. Wecharacterize the steady state throughput behavior of bothTCP and TCP/NC as a function of erasure rate, round-triptime (RTT), and maximum window size. Our work thusextends the work of  for TCP and TCP/NC in lossy wire-less networks. Furthermore, we use NS-2 ( Network Sim-ulator ) to verify our analytical results for TCP andTCP/NC. Our analysis and simulations show that TCP/NCis robust against erasures and failures.
8 TCP/NC is not onlyable to increase its window size faster but also maintain alarge window size despite losses within the Network . Thus,TCP/NC is well suited for reliable communication in lossynetworks. In contrast, standard TCP experiences windowclosing as losses are mistaken to be has been extensive research on Modeling and ana-lyzing TCP s performance [13 18]. Our goal is to present ananalysis for TCP/NC, and to provide a comparison of TCPand TCP/NC in a lossy wireless environment. We adoptPadhyeet al. s model  as their model provides a simpleyet good model to predict the performance of TCP.
9 It wouldbe interesting to extend and analyze TCP/NC in other TCPmodels in the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we providea brief overview of TCP/NC. In Section 3, we introduceour communication model. In Section 4, we provide theintuition behind the benefit of using Network coding withTCP. Then, we provide throughput analysis for TCP andTCP/NC in Sections 5 and 6, respectively. In Section 7, weprovide simulation results to verify our analytical results inSections 5 and 6. Finally, we conclude in Section OVERVIEW OF TCP/NCReference  introduces a newnetwork codinglayer be-p1p2p3 LostACK(p1)ACK(p1)p1+p2+p3 Lostseen(p1)seen(p2)p1+2p2+p3p1+2p2+2p3 TCPE2E-TCP/NCFigure 1: Example of TCP and TCP/NC.
10 In the case ofTCP, the TCP sender receives duplicate ACKs for packetp1, which may wrongly indicate congestion. However, forTCP/NC, the TCP sender receives ACKs for packetsp1andp2; thus, the TCP sender perceives a longer round-triptime (RTT) but does not mistake the loss to be the TCP and IP in the protocol stack. The networkcoding layer intercepts and modifies TCP s acknowledgment(ACK) scheme such that random erasures does not affectthe transport layer s performance. To do so, theencoder,the Network coding unit under the sender TCP, transmitsRrandom linear combinations of the buffered packets for everytransmitted packet from TCP sender.