1 user interface Design n user interface Design requires an understanding of user interface , Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and user - Input and Output Design centered Design principles. peter Lo CS211 peter Lo 2004 1 CS211 peter Lo 2004 2. 8 user -centered Design Principles Good user interface Design 1. Understand the Underlying Business Functions n Good user interface Design is based on a 2. Maximize Graphical Effectiveness combination of Ergonomics ( ), Aesthetics ( ), and interface Technology. 3. Profile the System's Users u Ergonomics How people work, learn and 4. Think like a user interact with computer. 5. Use Prototyping u Aesthetics How an interface attractive and 6. Design a Comprehensive interface easy to use. u interface Technology Provide the operational 7. Continue the Feedback Process structure for Design objective. 8. Document the interface Design CS211 peter Lo 2004 3 CS211 peter Lo 2004 4. 1. user interface Design Guidelines user interface Controls n Focus on Basic Objectives n The designer can include many control features, n Build an interface that is Easy to Learn and Use such as Menu Bars, Toolbars, Dialog Boxes, Text n Provide Features that Promote Efficiency Boxes, Toggle Buttons, List Boxes, Scroll Bars, n Make it Easy for Users to Obtain Help or Correct Errors Drop-down List Boxes, Option Buttons, Check n Minimize Input Data Problems Boxes, Command Buttons, Spin Bars, and n Provide Feedback to Users Calendars among others.
2 N Create an Attractive Layout and Design n Use Familiar Terms and Images CS211 peter Lo 2004 5 CS211 peter Lo 2004 6. user interface Controls Input Design Issues n Data Capture is the identification and recording of source data. n Data Entry is the process of converting source data into computer-readable form and entering it into the information system. CS211 peter Lo 2004 7 CS211 peter Lo 2004 8. 2. 6 Main Input Design Objectives Input and Data Entry Methods 1. Select a suitable Input and data entry method n Input processes should be efficient, timely and logical. 2. Reduce Input volume n Two major Input methods: u Batch Input 3. Design attractive data entry screens t Data entry is performed on a specified time schedule, 4. Use validation checks to reduce Input errors such as daily, weekly, monthly, or longer. 5. Design required source documents u Online Input 6. Develop effective Input controls t Offers major advantages, including the immediate validation and availability of data.
3 CS211 peter Lo 2004 9 CS211 peter Lo 2004 10. Input Volume Data Entry Screens Design n To reduce Input volume, you must reduce the n Restrict user access. number of data items required for each transaction. n Provide a descriptive caption. n Display a sample format n Guidelines: n Require ending keystroke for every field. u Input necessary data only. n Do not require users to type leading zeroes for numeric u Do not Input data that the user can retrieve from fields. system files or calculate from other data. n Do not require users to type trailing zeroes for numbers that include decimals. u Do not Input constant data. n Display default values. u Use codes. n Use a default value when a field value will be constant. CS211 peter Lo 2004 11 CS211 peter Lo 2004 12. 3. Data Entry Screens Design Input Errors Validation n Display list of acceptable values. n Reducing the number of Input errors improves data quality. n Provide a way to leave the data entry screen at any time.
4 N Some data validation checks: n Provide users with an opportunity to confirm the accuracy u Sequence checks. of Input data before entering it u Existence checks. n Provide a means for users to move among fields on the u Data type checks. form in a standard order or in any order they choose. u Range checks. n Design the screen form layout to match the layout of the u Reasonableness checks. source document. u Validity checks. n Allow users to add, change, delete, and view records. u Combination checks. n Provide a method to allow users to search for specific u Batch controls. information. CS211 peter Lo 2004 13 CS211 peter Lo 2004 14. Source Documents Design Input Control n A source document is a form used to request and n Input control includes the necessary measures to ensure collect Input data, trigger or authorize an Input that Input data is correct, completed and secure. u Audit trail action, and provide a record of the original transaction. tRecords the source of each data item and when it entered the system.
5 Show how and when data is accessed or changed, and by whom. u Data security t Protects data from lost or damage and recovers data when it is lost or damaged. CS211 peter Lo 2004 15 CS211 peter Lo 2004 16. 4. Output Design Issues Types of Output n Some questions to consider before designing Output : n Internet-Based Information Delivery. u What is the purpose of the Output ? n E-Mail. u Who wants the information, why it is needed, and how n Audio Output . will it be uses? u What specific information will be included? n Automated Facsimile Systems. u Will the Output be printed, viewed on-screen, or both? n Computer Output Microfilm (COM). u When will the information be provided, and how often must it be updated? u Do security or confidentiality issues exist? CS211 peter Lo 2004 17 CS211 peter Lo 2004 18. Specialized Forms Of Output Printed Output n Retail point-of-sale terminals n Detail Report u A detail report produces one or more lines of Output for n Automated teller machines (ATM).
6 Each record processed. Each line of Output printed is n Special-purpose printers called a detail line. n Plotters n Exception Report n Digitized photos uAn exception report displays only those records that meet a specific condition or conditions. n Programmable devices n Summary Report u Upper-level managers often want to see total figure and do not need supporting details. CS211 peter Lo 2004 19 CS211 peter Lo 2004 20. 5. Detailed Report Exception Report n Lists one record per line n Identifies data outside of normal condition n Conditions, called exception criteria, define normal activity or status range CS211 peter Lo 2004 21 CS211 peter Lo 2004 22. Summary Report user Involvement n Consolidates data, so you can review it quickly and easily n When designing a report, you should prepare a n Usually has totals, tables, or graphs mock-up, or prototype, for users to review. CS211 peter Lo 2004 23 CS211 peter Lo 2004 24. 6. Report Design Principles n Printed reports must be attractive, professional, and easy to read.
7 N Good report Design , like any other aspect of the user interface , requires effort and attention to detail. n To produce a well-designed report, the analyst must consider several topics, including Report Headers and Footers, Page Headers and Footers, Column Headings and Alignment, Column Spacing, Field Order, and grouping of detail lines. CS211 peter Lo 2004 25 CS211 peter Lo 2004 26. Printing Volume and Time Measurement Requirements n Efficient printing operations, timely delivery of n Length Calculations finished reports, and accurate forecasts of paper u After completing a report Design , it is important and storage needs all depend on accurate estimates to estimate the length of the printed Output . of print volumes and times. n Time Calculations u You also can estimate the time required to print the report. CS211 peter Lo 2004 27 CS211 peter Lo 2004 28. 7. CS211 peter Lo 2004 29 CS211 peter Lo 2004 30. Output Control and Security Output Security Control n Output must be accurate, complete, current, and n Limit the number printed copies.
8 Secure. Companies use various Output control n Use a tracking procedure to account for each copy. methods to maintain Output integrity and security. n Output is delivered to authorized recipients only. n All sensitive reports should be stored in secure areas. n All pages of confidential reports should be labeled appropriately. CS211 peter Lo 2004 31 CS211 peter Lo 2004 32. 8.