# Gauss’ Law

Electric Field is everywhere **perpendicular** to surface, i.e. **parallel** to surface normal Gauss’ Law then gives 3 0 3 3 0 2 0 4 4 R Q r E R Q r E r Q E dA encl πε ε π ε = = ∫ ⋅ = r r Field increases linearly within sphere Outside of sphere, electric field is given by that of a point charge of value Q

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