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Search results with tag "Congressional research service"

U.S. Research and Development Funding and Performance ...

U.S. Research and Development Funding and Performance ...

sgp.fas.org

Oct 04, 2021 · Congressional Research Service R44307 · VERSION 15 · UPDATED 5 Author Information John F. Sargent Jr. Specialist in Science and Technology Policy Disclaimer This document was prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS). CRS serves as nonpartisan shared staff to congressional committees and Members of Congress.

  Development, Research, Policy, Services, Performance, Congressional, Congressional research service, Funding, Research and development funding and performance

Mexico: Organized Crime and Drug Trafficking Organizations

Mexico: Organized Crime and Drug Trafficking Organizations

sgp.fas.org

Mexico: Organized Crime and Drug Trafficking Organizations Congressional Research Service 2 Figure 1. Map of Mexico Source: Congressional Research Service (CRS). Violence is an intrinsic feature of the trade in illicit drugs.

  Research, Services, Trafficking, Congressional, Congressional research service

Winter Congress Bill Writing Guide

Winter Congress Bill Writing Guide

states.jsa.org

Library of Congress offers a database of recently discussed Congressional bills on a website called “Thomas” which can be found at thomas.loc.gov/. The Congressional Research Service (CRS) provides members of Congress with nonpartisan research and analysis of issues. Although these reports are not directly

  Research, Services, Library, Congress, Congressional, Congressional research service, Library of congress, Of congress

Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

sgp.fas.org

Women in Combat: Issues for Congress Congressional Research Service 2 World War II and the Women’s Armed Services Integration Act In the earlier part of the 20th century, the idea of enlisting women into the armed services was met with broad opposition from military commanders, Congress, and the public.

  Research, Services, Congressional, Congressional research service

Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

fas.org

Women in Combat: Issues for Congress Congressional Research Service 2 World War II and the Women’s Armed Services Integration Act In the earlier part of the 20th century, the idea of enlisting women into the armed services was met with broad opposition …

  Research, Services, Congressional, Congressional research service

Former Presidents: Pensions, Office Allowances, and Other ...

Former Presidents: Pensions, Office Allowances, and Other ...

fas.org

Former Presidents: Pensions, Office Allowances, and Other Federal Benefits Congressional Research Service 2 Service protection.6 In 1994, the law was amended to limit U.S. Secret Service coverage to 10 years for any President who entered office after January 1, 1997.7 President George W. Bush and his wife Laura Bush would have been the first former President and first lady who faced this

  Research, Services, Congressional, Congressional research service

Unemployment Rates During the COVID-19 Pandemic - FAS

Unemployment Rates During the COVID-19 Pandemic - FAS

sgp.fas.org

Aug 20, 2021 · Congressional Research Service 1 Introduction The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) declared February 2020 as the start of the most recent economic downturn, marking the end of the longest period of expansion in U.S. history.1 This expansion followed the Great Recession (December 2007 to June 2009), a

  Research, Services, Unemployment, Congressional, Congressional research service

Updated December 8, 2021 Venezuela: Political Crisis and U ...

Updated December 8, 2021 Venezuela: Political Crisis and U ...

sgp.fas.org

This document was prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS). CRS serves as nonpartisan shared staff to congressional committees and Members of Congress. It operates solely at the behest of and under the direction of Congress.

  Research, Services, Congressional, Congressional research service

U.S. Sanctions on Russia: An Overview - FAS

U.S. Sanctions on Russia: An Overview - FAS

fas.org

Mar 23, 2020 · This document was prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS). CRS serves as nonpartisan shared staff to congressional committees and Members of Congress. It operates solely at the behest of and under the direction of Congress.

  Research, Services, Congressional, Congressional research service, Sanctions

Venezuela: Overview of U.S. Sanctions

Venezuela: Overview of U.S. Sanctions

fas.org

Jan 22, 2021 · Venezuela: Overview of U.S. Sanctions https://crsreports.congress.gov | IF10715 · VERSION 35 · UPDATED IF10715 Disclaimer This document was prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS). CRS serves as nonpartisan shared staff to congressional committees and Members of Congress.

  Research, Services, Overview, Congressional, Congressional research service, Sanctions

Latin America and the Caribbean: Impact of COVID-19

Latin America and the Caribbean: Impact of COVID-19

sgp.fas.org

Nov 15, 2021 · This document was prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS). CRS serves as nonpartisan shared staff to congressional committees and Members of Congress. It operates solely at the behest of and under the direction of Congress.

  Research, Services, Congressional, Congressional research service

Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion

Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion

fas.org

Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion Congressional Research Service Summary Addressing tax evasion and avoidance through use of tax havens has been the subject of a number

  Research, Services, Congressional, Congressional research service

Accounting and Auditing Regulatory Structure: U.S. and ...

Accounting and Auditing Regulatory Structure: U.S. and ...

fas.org

Congressional Research Service 2 (1) private industry standards, (2) federal government standards, and (3) state and local government standards. Figure 1 provides an overview of the accounting and auditing standard-setters for the different segments that will be discussed in this report. Figure 1. Accounting and Auditing Standard-Setters Source ...

  Research, Services, Standards, Regulatory, Structure, Accounting, Auditing, Congressional, Congressional research service, Accounting and auditing regulatory structure

U.S. Periods of War and Dates of Recent Conflicts

U.S. Periods of War and Dates of Recent Conflicts

fas.org

Congressional Research Service 1 War Dates Congress, usually through a declaration of war, has often been the first governmental authority to designate the beginning date of a war or armed conflict. The President, or executive branch officials responsible to him, through proclamation, or Congress, through legislation, has been

  Research, Services, Date, Center, Periods, Conflicts, Congressional, Congressional research service, Periods of war and dates of recent conflicts

Risk Management and Critical Infrastructure Protection ...

Risk Management and Critical Infrastructure Protection ...

fas.org

Feb 04, 2005 · Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL32561 Risk Management and Critical Infrastructure Protection: Assessing, Integrating, and Managing Threats, Vulnerabilities and Consequences Updated February 4, 2005 John Moteff Specialist in Science and Technology Policy

  Research, Services, Critical, Report, Infrastructures, Management, Risks, Congress, Through, Congressional, Received, Congressional research service, Risk management and critical infrastructure, Congress crs report for congress received through the crs web

International Law and Agreements: Their Effect upon U.S. Law

International Law and Agreements: Their Effect upon U.S. Law

fas.org

Sep 19, 2018 · International Law and Agreements: Their Effect upon U.S. Law Congressional Research Service Summary International law is derived from two primary sources—international agreements and customary practice. Under the U.S. legal system, international agreements can be entered into by means of a treaty or an executive agreement.

  International, Research, Services, Congressional, Treaty, Congressional research service

American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and ...

American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and ...

sgp.fas.org

Jul 29, 2020 · Congressional Research Service Summary This report provides U.S. war casualty statistics. It includes data tables containing the number of casualties among American military personnel who served in principal wars and combat operations from 1775 to the present. It also includes data on those wounded in action and

  Research, Services, Operations, Lists, Military, Congressional, Congressional research service, Casualties, War and military operations casualties, Lists and

The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on ...

The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on ...

fas.org

The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11 Congressional Research Service Summary With enactment of the FY2014 Consolidated ...

  Research, Services, Global, Congressional, Congressional research service

Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain

Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain

fas.org

Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain Congressional Research Service Summary The concentration of production of rare earth elements (REEs) outside the United States raises the

  Research, Services, Global, Congressional, Congressional research service

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and ...

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and ...

fas.org

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects Congressional Research Service RL34680 · VERSION 28 · UPDATED 1 Budget Negotiations and Choices It has been said that “conflict is endemic to budgeting.”1 If conflict within Congress or between Congress and the President impedes the timely enactment of annual appropriations acts or

  Research, Services, Government, Congressional, Congressional research service

Statutory Interpretation: General Principles and Recent Trends

Statutory Interpretation: General Principles and Recent Trends

fas.org

Statutory Interpretation: General Principles and Recent Trends Congressional Research Service Summary The exercise of the judicial power of the United …

  Research, Services, Interpretation, Statutory, Congressional, Congressional research service, Statutory interpretation

Overseas Contingency Operations Funding: Background and …

Overseas Contingency Operations Funding: Background and …

fas.org

Overseas Contingency Operations Funding: Background and Status Congressional Research Service Summary The Department of Defense (DOD) estimates that …

  Research, Services, Operations, Congressional, Overseas, Contingency, Congressional research service, Overseas contingency operations

Summary of Potential Employer Penalties Under the Patient ...

Summary of Potential Employer Penalties Under the Patient ...

www.ncsl.org

Summary of Potential Employer Penalties Under PPACA Congressional Research Service 4 penalty for an employer would be limited to the total number of the firm’s full-time employees minus 30, multiplied by one-twelfth of $2,000 for any applicable month.

  Research, Services, Congressional, Congressional research service

China's Actions in South and East China Seas: Implications ...

China's Actions in South and East China Seas: Implications ...

fas.org

China’s Actions in South and East China Seas: Implications for U.S. Interests Congressional Research Service Summary China’s actions in recent years in the …

  Research, Services, Congressional, Congressional research service

The Pigford Cases: USDA Settlement of Discrimination Suits ...

The Pigford Cases: USDA Settlement of Discrimination Suits ...

nationalaglawcenter.org

The Pigford Cases: USDA Settlement of Discrimination Suits by Black Farmers Congressional Research Service Summary On April 14, 1999, Judge Paul L. Friedman of the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia

  Research, Services, Congressional, Congressional research service, Pigford

Banking Law: An Overview of Federal Preemption in the Dual ...

Banking Law: An Overview of Federal Preemption in the Dual ...

fas.org

Banking Law: An Overview of Federal Preemption in the Dual Banking System Jay B. Sykes Legislative Attorney January 23, 2018 Congressional Research Service

  Research, Federal, Services, Overview, Congressional, Congressional research service, Preemption, An overview of federal preemption in

Federal Emergency Management Policy Changes After …

Federal Emergency Management Policy Changes After …

fas.org

Federal Emergency Management Policy Changes After Hurricane Katrina Congressional Research Service Summary Reports issued by committees of the 109th Congress, the White House, federal offices of Inspector General, and the Government Accountability Office (GAO), among others, concluded that the

  Research, Federal, Policy, Services, Management, Change, Emergency, Congressional, Congressional research service, Federal emergency management policy changes

Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

sgp.fas.org

Congressional Research Service 3 which had started in neighboring Tunisia, compelled the military to force the resignation of former President Hosni Mubarak in February 2011. During this period, Egypt experienced tremendous political tumult, culminating in Morsi’s one-year presidency. When Morsi took office

  Research, Services, Political, Congressional, Congressional research service, Tunisia

U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel

U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel

sgp.fas.org

Congressional Research Service SUMMARY ... which ran through FY2018. Israel is the first international operator of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, the Department of Defense’s fifth-generation stealth aircraft, considered to be the most technologically advanced fighter jet ever made. ... Veterans Affairs Appropriations Act, 2021 (which passed ...

  Research, Services, Serial, Foreign, Affairs, Veterans, Congressional, Congressional research service, Appropriations, Fy2018, Foreign aid to israel, Veterans affairs appropriations

Organized Crime in the United States: Trends and Issues ...

Organized Crime in the United States: Trends and Issues ...

sgp.fas.org

Congressional Research Service 3 groups restrict membership based on a number of factors, including race, ethnicity, kinship, and criminal background. These criminal organizations continue, even if leadership or membership changes over time. Further, violence and/or the threat of violence are integral aspects of organized crime.

  Research, Services, United, States, Organization, Trends, Issue, Crime, Congressional, Organized, Congressional research service, Trends and issues, Organized crime in the united states

Offender Reentry: Correctional Statistics, Reintegration ...

Offender Reentry: Correctional Statistics, Reintegration ...

sgp.fas.org

Offender Reentry: Correctional Statistics, Reintegration into the Community Congressional Research Service 1 Background Over 95% of the prison population today will be released at some point in the future.1 Since 1990, an average of 590,400 inmates have been released annually from state and federal prisons.2 The Department of Justice’s (DOJ’s) Bureau of …

  Research, Services, Statistics, Into, Offender, Correctional, Congressional, Reintegration, Congressional research service, Reentry, Offender reentry, Correctional statistics, Reintegration into

The Definition of 'Supervisor' Under the National Labor ...

The Definition of 'Supervisor' Under the National Labor ...

sgp.fas.org

The Definition of “Supervisor” Under the National Labor Relations Act Congressional Research Service 1 he National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) establishes certain protections for private sector employees who want to form or join a labor union. These protections do …

  Research, Services, Definition, Under, National, Supervisor, Labor, Relations, Congressional, Congressional research service, The definition of supervisor under the national labor, The definition of supervisor under the national labor relations

Workers’ Compensation: Overview and Issues

Workers’ Compensation: Overview and Issues

sgp.fas.org

Feb 18, 2020 · These cuts and policy changes may be shifting some of the costs associated with workplace injuries, illnesses, and deaths away from the employer and to the employee or social programs, ... Congressional Research Service 3 Employer Defenses Prior to workers’ compensation, in addition to having to prove negligence on the part of the

  Research, Policy, Services, Issue, Overview, Compensation, Worker, Workers compensation, Congressional, Congressional research service, Overview and issues

Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Gun-Launched Guided Projectile ...

Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Gun-Launched Guided Projectile ...

sgp.fas.org

Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Gun-Launched Guided Projectile Congressional Research Service 1 Introduction Issue for Congress This report provides background information and issues for Congress on three potential new ship-

  Research, Services, Congressional, Congressional research service

Social Security: Minimum Benefits

Social Security: Minimum Benefits

sgp.fas.org

Jun 15, 2021 · Congressional Research Service 1 Introduction Social Security’s minimum benefit provision, the Special Minimum Primary Insurance Amount (PIA), is an alternative benefit formula that increases benefits paid to workers who had low earnings for many years and to their dependents and survivors. Unlike the regular Social Security

  Research, Services, Congressional, Congressional research service

Digital Trade and U.S. Trade Policy

Digital Trade and U.S. Trade Policy

sgp.fas.org

Congressional Research Service 1 Introduction The rapid growth of digital technologies in recent years has created new opportunities for U.S. consumers and businesses but also new challenges in international trade. For example, consumers today access e-commerce, social media, telemedicine, and other offerings not imagined thirty years ago.

  Research, Services, Congressional, Congressional research service

Costs of Major U.S. Wars

Costs of Major U.S. Wars

sgp.fas.org

CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Costs of Major U.S. Wars Stephen Daggett Specialist in Defense Policy and Budgets June 29, 2010 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RS22926

  Research, Services, Report, Congressional, Congressional research service

Navy Ford CVN-78 Class Aircraft Carrier Program ...

Navy Ford CVN-78 Class Aircraft Carrier Program ...

sgp.fas.org

Congressional Research Service 1 Introduction This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class nuclear-powered aircraft carrier (CVN) aircraft carrier program. The Navy’s proposed FY2022 budget requests $2,659.5 million (i.e., about $2.7 billion) in

  Research, Services, Report, Congressional, Congressional research service

Legislative Branch

Legislative Branch

appropriations.house.gov

ongoing Library initiatives such as the Veterans’ History Project. o Of the amount for the Library, the bill includes $129.1 million for Congressional Research Service, an increase of $3.6 million above FY 2021 level.

  Research, Services, Library, Congressional, Congressional research service, The library

Congress's Contempt Power and the Enforcement of ...

Congress's Contempt Power and the Enforcement of ...

sgp.fas.org

Congressional Research Service Summary Congress’s contempt power is the means by which Congress responds to certain acts that in its view obstruct the legislative process. Contempt may be used either to coerce compliance, to punish the contemnor, and/or to remove the obstruction. Although arguably any action that

  Research, Services, Congressional, Congressional research service

An Introduction to the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

An Introduction to the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

sgp.fas.org

Jan 26, 2021 · Congressional Research Service 1 Overview The low-income housing tax credit (LIHTC) program, which was created by the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514), is the federal government’s primary policy tool for the development of affordable rental housing. LIHTCs are awarded to developers to offset the cost of constructing

  Research, Services, Income, Housing, Congressional, Congressional research service, Low income housing tax

Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data

Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data

sgp.fas.org

Feb 21, 2020 · Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data Congressional Research Service Summary The federal government owns roughly 640 million acres, about 28% of the 2.27 billion acres of land in the United States. Four major federal land management agencies administer 606.5 million acres of this land (as of September 30, 2018).

  Research, Services, Overview, Congressional, Congressional research service

CRS Report for Congress

CRS Report for Congress

training.fema.gov

Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL33729 Federal Emergency Management Policy Changes After Hurricane Katrina: A Summary of Statutory Provisions November 15, 2006 Keith Bea, Coordinator Specialist, American National Government Government and Finance Division

  Research, Services, Report, Congress, Congressional, Congressional research service, Crs report for congress, Congress crs report for congress

U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and ...

U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and ...

sgp.fas.org

Congressional Research Service Summary The economic and trade relationship with Mexico is of interest to U.S. policymakers because of Mexico¶s proximity to the United States, the extensive trade and investment relationship under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the conclusion of the NAFTA

  Economic, Research, Services, Trends, Issue, Trade, Mexico, Relations, Congressional, Mexico economic relations, Congressional research service

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

sgp.fas.org

May 24, 2017 · The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Congressional Research Service Summary The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) entered into force on January 1, 1994. The agreement was signed by President George H. W. Bush on December 17, 1992, and approved by Congress on November 20, 1993. The NAFTA …

  Research, American, Services, Agreement, Trade, Free, North, Congressional, Nafta, Congressional research service, North american free trade agreement

Afghanistan: Background and U.S. Policy: In Brief

Afghanistan: Background and U.S. Policy: In Brief

sgp.fas.org

Jun 11, 2021 · Afghanistan: Background and U.S. Policy: In Brief Congressional Research Service 2 diplomatic position.”6 In October 2020, Afghan forces killed a high-ranking AQ operative in Afghanistan’s Ghazni province, where he reportedly was living and working with Taliban forces, further underscoring questions about

  Research, Services, Congressional, Congressional research service

CRS Report for Congress - IAGS

CRS Report for Congress - IAGS

www.iags.org

Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL32205 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals:

  Research, Services, Report, Congress, Through, Congressional, Received, Congressional research service, Crs report for congress, Crs report for congress received through the crs web

Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An ...

Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An ...

fas.org

Apr 13, 2017 · Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview Congressional Research Service 2 as long as nominations are submitted by deadlines established by the academies,6 provide the information requested in the format required by …

  Research, Services, Congressional, Congressional research service

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