1 A Comprehensive Technical Package for the Prevention of Youth violence and associated Risk Behaviors National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Division of violence Prevention A Comprehensive Technical Package for the Prevention of Youth violence and associated Risk Behaviors Prepared by: Corinne David-Ferdon, PhD. Alana M. Vivolo-Kantor, PhD, MPH. Linda L. Dahlberg, PhD. Khiya J. Marshall, DrPH, MPH. Neil Rainford, MHSE. Jeffery E. Hall, PhD. 2016. Division of violence Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, Georgia A Comprehensive Technical Package for the Prevention of Youth violence and associated Risk Behaviors is a publication of the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Thomas R. Frieden, MD, MPH, Director National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Debra E.
2 Houry, MD, MPH, Director Division of violence Prevention James A. Mercy, PhD, Director Suggested citation: David-Ferdon, C., Vivolo-Kantor, A. M., Dahlberg, L. L., Marshall, K. J., Rainford, N. & Hall, J. E. (2016). A Comprehensive Technical Package for the Prevention of Youth violence and associated Risk Behaviors. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . 2 A Comprehensive Technical Package for the Prevention of Youth violence and associated Risk Behaviors Contents 5. Partner 5. 7. Promote Family Environments that Support Healthy Provide Quality Education Early in Strengthen Youth's Skills ..21. Connect Youth to Caring Adults and Create Protective Community Intervene to Lessen Harms and Prevent Future Benefits Relative to Sector Monitoring and Appendix: Summary of Strategies and Approaches to Prevent Youth A Comprehensive Technical Package for the Prevention of Youth violence and associated Risk Behaviors 3.
3 Acknowledgements This Technical Package is based on decades of youth violence Prevention research, and we are appreciative of the hard work of the many individuals who have developed a tremendous amount of knowledge that makes the Prevention of youth violence possible. We thank Division, Center, CDC leadership and other CDC Prevention scientists, including Sarah Bacon, Kevin Vagi, and Brad Bartholow, for their input, careful review, and helpful feedback on earlier iterations of this resource. We thank Alida Knuth for her formatting and design expertise. We also extend our gratitude to all of our partners for their helpful feedback, support, and encouragement for this resource. We would like to especially thank the American Institutes for Research, American Psychological Association, Equal Justice USA, Michigan Youth violence Prevention Center, Monterey County Health Department, National League of Cities, North Carolina Rural Academic Center of Excellence in Youth violence Prevention , Prevention Institute, Safe States Alliance, and our Federal colleagues in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and in the Office of Minority Health for their helpful written feedback on this Package .
4 Partner Review CDC provided an overview of the youth violence Technical Package to partners and grantees in a series of webinars. A. draft of the youth violence Technical Package was also shared with partners and grantees following the webinars. These partner organizations are listed below. Striving To Reduce Youth violence Everywhere National Centers of Excellence in Youth violence Prevention (STRYVE) Action Council Chicago Center for Youth violence Prevention American Academy of Pediatrics Clark-Hill Institute for Positive Youth Development American Association of School Administrators Denver National Center of Excellence in Youth violence American Psychological Association Prevention American Public Health Association Johns Hopkins Center for the Prevention of Youth violence Association of State and Territorial Health Officials Michigan Youth violence Prevention Center Boys and Girls Clubs of America North Carolina Rural Academic Center of Excellence in Youth Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America violence Prevention Hope Matters International University of Louisville Youth violence Prevention Center Illinois Children's Mental Health Partnership Local Initiatives Support Corporation CDC's Division of violence Prevention Policy Network National Association of County and City Health Officials American Academy of Pediatrics
5 National Association of Students Against violence Everywhere American College of Preventive Medicine National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges American Foundation for Suicide Prevention National League of Cities American Psychological Association Prevention Institute California Coalition Against Sexual Assault Safe States Alliance Futures Without violence Young Men's Christian Association National Association of County and City Health Officials National Resource Center on Domestic violence STRYVE Technical Assistance and Grantees National Sexual violence Resource Center American Institutes for Research North Carolina Coalition Against Sexual Assault Boston Public Health Commission (MA) Prevent Child Abuse America Houston Health Department (TX) Prevention Institute Monterey County Health Department (CA) Safe States Alliance Multnomah County Health Department (OR). Federal Partners United States Department of Justice Office of Minority Health National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health A Comprehensive Technical Package for the Prevention of Youth violence and associated Risk Behaviors 5.
6 Overview This Technical Package represents a select group of strategies based on the best available evidence to help communities and states sharpen their focus on Prevention activities with the greatest potential to prevent youth violence and its consequences. These strategies include promoting family environments that support healthy development; providing quality education early in life;. strengthening youth's skills; connecting youth to caring adults and activities; creating protective community environments;. and intervening to lessen harms and prevent future risk. The strategies represented in this Package include those with a focus on preventing youth violence from happening in the first place as well as approaches to reduce the immediate and long-term harms of youth violence in order to prevent future violence . Preventing youth violence requires multiple, complementary strategies, and those outlined in the Package reflect the mature research-base about CDC's Striving To how to strengthen individual's skills and relationships to prevent Reduce Youth violence youth ,2 It also includes promising evidence about ways to address broader community issues that affect the likelihood of Everywhere Initiative youth violence .
7 This Package supports CDC's STRYVE initiative for preventing STRYVE's vision is safe and healthy youth youth violence . In particular, this Package articulates a select set who can achieve their full potential as of strategies and specific approaches to achieve STRYVE's vision of connected and contributing members safe and healthy youth achieving their full potential (see box to the of thriving violence -free families, right). Commitment, cooperation, and leadership from numerous schools, and communities. STRYVE. sectors, including public health, education, justice, health care, works to: social services, business, and government, can bring about the successful implementation and long-term impact of this Package . Increase public health leadership to prevent youth violence What is a Technical Package ? Promote the widespread use of youth violence Prevention A Technical Package is a compilation of a core set of strategies to strategies based on the best achieve and sustain substantial reductions in a specific risk factor available evidence or Technical packages help communities and states prioritize Prevention activities based on the best available evidence.
8 Achieve national reductions in This Technical Package has three components. The first component youth violence is the strategy or the preventive direction or actions to achieve the goal of preventing youth violence . The second component is the STRYVE has several interacting approach. The approach includes the specific ways to advance the components that all contribute to the strategy. This can be accomplished through programs, policies, and achievement of the vision, including practices. The evidence for each of the approaches in preventing national partnerships, online training youth violence or its associated risk factors is included as the third component. This Package is intended as a resource to guide and and tools, and Technical assistance. inform Prevention decision-making in communities and states. violenceprevention/ A Comprehensive Technical Package for the Prevention of Youth violence and associated Risk Behaviors 7. Preventing Youth violence is a Priority Youth violence is a significant public health problem that affects thousands of young people each day, and in turn, their families, schools, and communities.
9 Youth violence occurs when young people between the ages of 10 and 24. years intentionally use physical force or power to threaten or harm ,4 Youth violence typically involves young people hurting other peers who are unrelated to them and who they may or may not know well. Youth violence can take different forms. Examples include fights, bullying, threats with weapons, and gang-related violence . A young person can be involved with youth violence as a victim, offender, or witness. Different forms of youth violence can also vary in the harm that results and can include physical harm, such as injuries or death, as well as psychological harm, increased medical and justice costs, decreased property values, and disruption of community Youth violence is highly prevalent. Youth violence is a leading cause of death and nonfatal injuries in the United States. Homicide is the third leading cause of death among persons aged 10 to 24 The majority of these homicides are from firearm violence .
10 In 2014, 86% of youth homicide victims were killed with a The number of young persons who are treated for nonfatal physical assault-related injuries in emergency departments in the United States is more than 115 times higher than the number Each day approximately 12 young people are victims of homicide and an additional 1,374 are treated in emergency departments for nonfatal physical assault- related Additionally, self-report information indicates that 1 in 5 high school students was bullied at school or in a physical fight in the past Although the rates of youth homicide and crime are declining, these promising trends are inconsistent across population groups and the public health burden remains too high. For instance, the decline in homicide rates among non-Hispanic Black youth is less than the decline for non-Hispanic White Homicide has been the leading cause of death for non-Hispanic Black youth for more than three decades and is the second leading cause of death for Hispanic Youth violence is a significant problem that negatively impacts youth in urban, suburban, rural, and tribal communities.