1 Biology (863). Aims: 1. To enable candidates to acquire the knowledge and to develop an understanding of biological terms, concepts, facts, principles, formulae, etc. 2. To develop the ability to apply the knowledge of Biology in unfamiliar situations. 3. To develop experimental skills required in Biology practical work. 4. To create awareness about the problems of the environment and the manner in which these problems can be overcome. 5. To develop the ability to appreciate biological phenomena in nature and the contribution of Biology to human welfare. 6. To develop interest in plants and animals and in their respective environments. 7. To develop scientific attitude towards biological phenomena. 8. To create awareness of the fundamentals of human Biology , food, health, nutrition and population control. CLASS XI. There will be two papers in the subject. Paper I: Theory: 3 hours ..70 marks Paper II: Practical: 3 hours .. 15 marks Project Work 10 marks Practical File 5 marks PAPER 1- THEORY: 70 Marks There will be no overall choice in the paper.
2 Candidates will be required to answer all questions. Internal choice will be available in two questions of 2 marks each, two questions of 3 marks each and all the three questions of 5 marks each. UNIT TOTAL WEIGHTAGE. 1. Diversity of Living Organisms* 07 + 10* Marks 2. Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants 11 Marks 3. Cell: structure and Function 15 Marks 4. Plant Physiology 17 Marks 5. Human Physiology 10 Marks TOTAL 70 Marks *The topic Biological Classification under Unit 1 Diversity of Living Organisms is to be assessed through Text Based Assessment which will include questions of 10 Marks. No other questions will be asked from this section. The material for Text Based Assessment is to be prepared by the school. PLEASE NOTE: The topic for Text Based Assessment may vary from one year to another. 193. PAPER I THEORY 70 Marks (b) Kingdom Monera: Bacteria - classification of bacteria according to Note: All structures (internal and external) are shape, nutrition and mode of respiration.
3 Required to be taught along with diagrams. types of reproduction definition of fission, conjugation, transduction and transformation (details not required). 1. Diversity of Living Organisms Economic importance with reference to (i) The Living World role of bacteria in sewage treatment, antibiotics, energy production and house What is living? Biodiversity; Need for hold products (curd and cheese only). classification; three domains of life;. (c) Kingdom Protista only two general taxonomy and systematics; concept of characteristics and two examples species and taxonomical hierarchy;. of subgroups: (i) Chrysophytes binomial nomenclature; tools for study of (ii) Dinoflagellates, (iii) Euglenoids, taxonomy-museums, zoological parks, (iv) Slime moulds, (v) Protozoans (to be herbaria, botanical gardens. studied under rhizopods, flagellates, Characteristics of living organisms. ciliates and sporozoans with two Biodiversity (definition only). Need for characteristics including modes of classification should be discussed.)
4 Three locomotion and two examples of each). domains of life distinguishing features of (d) Kingdom Fungi: general characteristics (archaea, bacteria, eukarya), - a brief idea of and mode of reproduction of each the role of different types of archaebacteria (including types of spores and sexual (methanogens, halophiles and reproduction definition of isogamy, thermoacidophiles in their extreme anisogamy, oogamy, plasmogamy, environments, mycoplasma three distinctive karyogamy and dikaryophase). features). Definition and explanation of the Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, terms taxonomy and systematics. Concept of Basidiomycetes, Deuteromycetes - species. Major taxonomical hierarchies characteristics with examples. Role of (phylum, class, order, family, genus, fungi in the field of medicine, bakery and species): definition and examples with environmental decomposition. Definition of lichens and mycorrhiza (ecto and reference to classification of man, house fly, endo).
5 Mango and wheat. Rules of binomial nomenclature and advantages of using Life cycles not required. scientific names. Aids for study of taxonomy (e) Virus (characteristic features link a very brief idea of museum and herbaria, between living and non-living, structure zoological parks and botanical gardens. of TMV and bacteriophage and Definition of taxonomical keys. contribution of the following scientists: Three systems of classification artificial, Ivanowsky, Beijerinck, natural and phylogenetic. Stanley) and Viroid (definition only). (ii) Biological Classification (iii) Plant Kingdom Five kingdom classification; s alient (a) Algae - characteristics (morphology, features and classification of Monera, common name, major pigments, stored Protista, Fungi, P l a n t a e and Animalia. food, composition of cell wall, flagellar Lichens, Viruses and Viroids. number and position of insertion, habitat, mode of sexual reproduction . (a) Five-kingdom system of classification isogamous, anisogamous and oogamous).
6 And characteristics of different kingdoms and examples of Chlorophyceae, with examples. Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae; Economic importance of algae any five. 194. (b) Bryophyta general characteristics, mammalia) three distinguishing characters distinctive features of liverworts and with two examples of each). mosses; graphic outline of life cycle of 2. Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants Funaria with reference to alternation of generations. Economic importance of (i) Morphology of Flowering Plants bryophytes. (a) Morphology and modifications of root, (c) Pteridophyta: characteristics; stem, leaf. classification into classes: psilopsida Types of roots (tap, fibrous, adventitious), (Psilotum), lycopsida (Selaginella, regions, modifications of roots for Lycopodium), sphenopsida (Equisetum) storage, respiration (pneumatophores). and pteropsida (Dryopteris, Pteris and and support (stilt and prop). Adiantum). Graphic outline of life cycle of a typical pteridophyte (fern).
7 Definition Stems features (nodes internodes, of homospory and heterospory with buds), modifications underground, relevant examples. Economic importance. aerial and sub-aerial. (d) Gymnosperms: general characteristics Leaves - parts of a simple leaf, venation, and graphic outline of life cycle of a types of leaves (simple and compound . typical gymnosperm (Pinus). Economic pinnate and palmate), phyllotaxy . importance. alternate, opposite, whorled (with an example of each). (e) Angiosperms general characteristics and classification into monocots and Modifications for mechanical support, dicots; Graphic outline of life cycle of a protection, storage, reproduction;. typical angiosperm. insectivorous plant (pitcher plant, Venus-fly-trap. (f) Comparison of life cycle patterns of different plant groups (haplontic, (b) Morphology of flower, fruit and seed. diplontic and haplo-diplontic). structure of a typical flower, types of inflorescence (racemose and cymose).)
8 (iv) Animal Kingdom structure of a typical flower, Animal Kingdom: animal construction - body bracteates/ebracteate, [symmetry plan (cell aggregate plan, blind-sac plan and (actinomorphic, zygomorphic), tube-within-tube plan), symmetry (spherical, trimerous/tetramerous/pentamerous radial and bilateral symmetry), coelom complete/ incomplete, non-essential development (diploblastic and triploblastic whorls (calyx: gamosepalous, organisation in animals, acoelomate, polysepalous, corolla: gamopetalous, pseudocoelomate, coelomate and polysepalous, perianth), essential whorls haemocoelomate), segmentation. (androecium: cohesion - syngenesious, Non-chordata - five distinguishing synandrous, monadelphous, diadelphous, characters with two examples of Porifera, polyadelphous; adhesion epipetalous, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, epiphyllous; number of lobes . Nematoda (Aschelminthes), Annelida, monothecous, dithecous; Gynoecium: Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, position of ovary epigynous, Hemichordata.)]
9 Hypogynous, perigynous, cohesion . apocarpous, syncarpous, number of Chordata sub-classification of Chordata locules unilocular, bilocular, with reference to notochord - sub phyla multilocular], types of inflorescence Urochordata, Cephalochordata. Vertebrata (racemose and cymose definition and (classes cyclostomata, chondrichthyes, differences; subtypes not required). osteichthyes, amphibia, reptilia, aves and 195. Fruits to be classified into true and false, Location, structure and functions of structure of a typical fruit (mango and epithelial tissues with examples, types coconut). of junctions (tight, adhering and gap Seeds structure of dicot (bean) and junctions) location and general monocot (maize), non-albuminous and structure of areolar tissue - functions of albuminous, perisperm. different types of cells; difference Description of families Solanaceae, between bone and cartilage; of Fabaceae and Liliaceae. hyaline cartilage, of bone, (to be (ii) Anatomy of Flowering Plants taught with the help of diagrams).)
10 (a) Plant Tissues: types of plant tissues: different types of muscles and their Meristematic tissues: classification of functions ; structure of a neuron (types meristematic tissue. Permanent Tissues: unipolar, bipolar, multipolar, structure and function of simple tissues myelinated, non-myelinated). (parenchyma, collenchyma and Neuroglial cells. sclerenchyma) and complex tissues (b) Cockroach (xylem and phloem), tissue system. Morphology, anatomy and functions Internal structure of root, stem, and leaf. of different systems (digestive, Characteristics of meristematic tissue; circulatory, respiratory, nervous and classification of meristems based on reproductive) of an insect (cockroach) - origin and location; structure , function a brief account only. and location of permanent tissues;. simple and complex tissues; epidermal, 3. Cell: structure and Function ground and vascular tissue systems. (i) Cell - the Unit of Life Cellular diagrams of of roots and Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: stem and of monocot and dicot structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic leaves are required.