1 SPIRULINA A LIVELIHOODAND A BUSINESS VENTUREM arch 2011 REPORT/RAPPORT : SF/2011/16 EuropeanUnionFunded byImplementation of a Regional Fisheries Stategy For The Eastern-Southern Africa And Indian Ocean Region10th European Development FundAgreement No: RSO/FED/2009/021-330 This publication has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of the author and can in no way be taken to the views of the European Union. Implementation of a Regional Fisheries Stategy For The Eastern-Southern Africa And Indian Ocean Region10th European Development FundAgreement No: RSO/FED/2009/021-330 This publication has been produced with the assistance of the European Union.
2 The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of the author and can in no way be taken to the views of the European Union. Implementation of a Regional Fisheries StrategyFor The Eastern-Southern Africa and India Ocean RegionProgramme pour la mise en oeuvre d'une strat gie de p che pour laregion Afrique orientale-australe et Oc an indienSpirulinaA Livehood And A BUSINESS VentureSF/2011/16 Antonio PiccoloThis report has been prepared with the technical assistance ofLe pr sent rapport a t r alis par l'assistance technique deMarch 2012 EuropeanUnionFunded byTABLE OF CONTENTS 6 LAYMAN S 7 RESUME DES 7 EXECUTIVE 8 RESUME 81.
3 INTRODUCTION - WHAT IS SPIRULINA ?.. 13 WHAT ARE MICRO-ALGAE?..14 USES OF SPIRULINA AND SPIRULINA IN THE ESA-IO 17 WHAT S IN 17 WHAT S REQUIRED TO GROW SPIRULINA THE 18 WHERE AND 20 WHAT IS WORKING AND WHAT ISN 223 PRODUCT FORMS AND 23 SPIRULINA 23 OVERVIEW OF REGIONAL 23 OVERVIEW OF EXPORTS .. 234 TYPICAL SMALL SCALE INVESTMENT 24 OPERATIONAL 24 FINANCIALS SEE ANNEX IV FOR A FULL BREAKDOWN OF 255 RECOMMENDED NEXT STEPS FOR PILOT PROJECT IN ESA-IO 26 OVERALL 26 POSSIBLE LOCATIONS FOR PILOT SPIRULINA 26 COSTS FOR A COMMUNICATION 26 ANNEX I TERMS OF REFERENCE.
4 28 ANNEX II PEOPLE MET DURING THE MISSION .. 32 ANNEX III - ESTIMATED COSTS OF A PILOT SPIRULINA 33 ANNEX IV - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF WELL AT 35 PREFACEW ithin the context of the sustainability of artisanal fisheries in the ESA-IO region, efforts are being made to understand how traditional fishers can improve economic conditions for themselves and communities through diversification from traditional activities. This would provide supplemental and/or alternative opportunities for the fishing communities that would remove pressure from over-fished stocks, as well as provide new and exciting opportunities to improve economic returns.
5 Whilst this context has merit, SmartFish also provides an opportunity to review and understand potential in areas that are less developed and less understood in the region, but offer quite significant potential for investment at a small scale that is suitable to the smaller entrepreneur in the region, and notably for women to be this in mind, this study looks at SPIRULINA as a new BUSINESS opportunity that is recognized and has the potential for developing national and regional markets. A relatively small investment is required and the technical knowledge is fairly simple to obtain. SPIRULINA also provides a basic BUSINESS model that is similar in process to those techniques used by regular fish farming and so links well with the burgeoning interest in the aquaculture sub-sector regionally.
6 SmartFish is interested to identify suitable opportunities for diversification and to provide support to pilot these opportunities in suitable areas to encourage their expansion and integration within the overall strategic regional fisheries development approach that forms the basis of the Programme. This report, which has been prepared by Mr. Tony Piccolo involved a regional assessment of potential for SPIRULINA growth and focused attention on western Kenya, which is presently a key area where production is starting and showing promising results. SPIRULINA is a less known, but potentially interesting opportunity for increased production in the region and has a high value and an established, growing market.
7 The opportunity is particularly relevant to women from the perspective that it is an activity that can be performed with less capital intervention and can be established close to the home. This has very interesting potential with respect to the diversification of the artisanal fishing sector and enhancement of regional trade and food security. This report is the first step and will identify the opportunity for SmartFish to communicate the potential to the region and support pilot interventions and training in future stages of the Programme. ACRONYMSAIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency SyndromeCD4 T-cell count in the body identifies levels of immunity in the systemCESVI Cooperazione e Sviluppo Italia Italian NGO working in cooperation and developmentCO2 Carbon DioxideESA IO Eastern and Southern Africa and Indian Ocean EU European UnionFAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsGLA Gamma-Linolenic AcidHIV Human Immunodeficiency VirusIFAD Innovative Fund for Agricultural DevelopmentKEBS Kenya Bureau of StandardsKMFRI Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research InstituteIIMSAM Intergovernmental Institution
8 For the Use of Micro-Algae SPIRULINA against MalnutritionMoH Ministry of HealthNGO Non-Government OrganizationpH level potential Hydrogen (amount of acid and alkaline in water)PBR Photo Bio-ReactorPV Photo VoltaicRNA Ribonucleic AcidTASO The AIDS Support Organizations, UgandaUAC Uganda Aids CommissionUK United KingdomUNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDSUNICEF United Nations International Children s FundUSDA United States Department of AgricultureWFP World Food ProgrammeWHO World Health OrganizationACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe author wishes to thank the following people who contributed and assisted in giving information for this report.
9 The list below has been compiled in the order that the people were met and in no way reflects their overall contribution. Each and every individual has contributed valuable information to the report and although most of the information has gone into the report, some has been retained by the author and SmartFish for future reference;Dunga SPIRULINA : Mr. Jagpal SandhuKMFRI Kisumu: Dr. Ojwang Raphael OkeyoIIMSAM: Frederick Lwamba Elhaan Egeh Job Kongula Grace NyamogoGalaxy Kakamega: Paul KisianganiUNICEF: Richard OktechCESVI: Laura KadduUganda Aids Commission: Dr.
10 David TigawalanaTASO: Mr. Robert OchaiUganda MoH: Dr. Joshua MusingusiLAYMAN S SUMMARYThis report presents the findings of a mission that examined the requirements for developing a communication plan to support diversification of artisanal fisheries, with specific focus on SPIRULINA production. SPIRULINA is a high value nutritional product whose market potential is growing in both developed and developing countries. Its high protein, vitamin, mineral and micro-nutrient content makes it an ideal food supplement for the malnourished as well as the health conscious who wish to boost their immune systems.