ECTURE Viterbi Decoding of Convolutional Codes
Oct 06, 2010 · (PM).Thebranchmetricisameasureofthe“distance”betweenwhatwastransmittedand what was received, and is deﬁned for each arc in the trellis. In hard decision decoding, where we are given a sequence of digitized parity bits, the branch metric is the Hamming distance between the expected parity bits and the received ones. An example is shown in
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De nition 1 (Hamming distance) Given two vectors u;v 2Fnwe de ne the hamming distance between u and v, d(u;v), to be the number of places where u and v di er. Thus the Hamming distance between two vectors is the number of bits we must change to change one into the other. Example Find the distance between the vectors 01101010 and 11011011. 01101010
The Hamming distance between two word i th b f diffds is the number of differences between corresponding bits. 10.25. Example 10.4 Let us find the Hamming distance between two pairs of words. 1. The Hamming distance d(000, 011) is2because 2. The HiHamming distance d(10101, 11110) is 3 because
Hamming distance • Measures the number of bit flipsto change one codeword into another • Hamming distance between two messages m 1, m 2: The number of bit flips needed to change m 1into m 2 • Example: Two bit flips needed to change codeword 00 to codeword 11, so they are Hamming distance of twoapart: 17 00 01 11
Hamming distance between any two valid code words is at least 2. In the diagram above, we’re using “even parity” where the added bit is chosen to make the total number of 1’s in the code word even. Can we correct detected errors? Not yet… If D is the minimum Hamming distance between code words, we can detect up to (D-1)-bit errors
Hamming distance. In general, we will assume that it is more likely to have less errors than more errors. Furthermore, we will assume an upper bound on the number of errors that occur (if we are wrong, then an incorrect message may be received). This “worst case” approach to coding is intuitively appealing within itself, in our opinion.
code with such a check matrix H is a binary Hamming code of redundancy binary Hamming code r, denoted Ham r(2). Thus the [7;4] code is a Hamming code Ham 3(2). Each binary Hamming code has minimum weight and distance 3, since as before there are no columns 0 and no pair of identical columns. That is, no pair of columns
Hamming Codes Memory 15 Richard Hamming described a method for generating minimum-length error-correcting codes. Here is the (7,4) Hamming code for 4-bit words: Data bits Check bits 0000 000 0001 011 0010 101 0011 110 0100 110 0101 101 0110 011 Say we had the data word 0100 and check bits 011 . The two valid data words that match that check bit