Transcription of West African Food Composition Table - Table de …
1 west African food 2012. Composition Table Table de Composition des aliments d Afrique de l Ouest ISBN 978-92-5-007207-4. 9 7 8 9 2 5 0 0 7 2 0 7 4. I2698Bi/1 MD617-E. west African food Composition Table Table de Composition des aliments d'Afrique de l'Ouest Barbara Stadlmayr, U Ruth Charrondiere, Victor N Enujiugha, Romaric G Bayili, Etel G Fagbohoun, Babacar Samb, Paulina Addy, Ingrid Barikmo, Fatimata Ouattara, Arne Oshaug, Isaac Akinyele, George Amponsah Annor, Kennedy Bomfeh, Henrietta Ene- Obong, Ifeyironwa Francisca Smith, Ismael Thiam, Barbara Burlingame THE food AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF. THE UNITED NATIONS (FAO). Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy THE INTERNATIONAL NETWORK OF food DATA. SYSTEMS (INFOODS) Secretariat at FAO. Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy THE west African HEALTH ORGANISATION (WAHO). a specialized Institution of the Economic Community of west African States (ECOWAS).
2 Bobo-Dioulasso, 01 BP 153 Bobo-Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso BIOVERSITY INTERNATIONAL. formerly International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Via dei Tre Denari, 472/a, Maccarese, Rome, Italy food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome 2012. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.
3 The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of FAO. Les appellations employ es dans ce produit d'information et la pr sentation des donn es qui y figurent n'impliquent de la part de l'Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture (FAO) aucune prise de position quant au statut juridique ou au stade de d veloppement des pays, territoires, villes ou zones ou de leurs autorit s, ni quant au trac de leurs fronti res ou limites. La mention de soci t s d termin es ou de produits de fabricants, qu'ils soient ou non brevet s, n'entra ne, de la part de la FAO, aucune approbation ou recommandation desdits produits de pr f rence d'autres de nature analogue qui ne sont pas cit s. Les opinions exprim es dans ce produit d'information sont celles du/des auteur(s) et ne refl tent pas n cessairement celles de la FAO.
4 ISBN 978-92-5-007207-4. All rights reserved. FAO encourages reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product. Non-commercial uses will be authorized free of charge, upon request. Reproduction for resale or other commercial purposes, including educational purposes, may incur fees. Applications for permission to reproduce or disseminate FAO copyright materials, and all queries concerning rights and licences, should be addressed by e-mail to or to the Chief, Publishing Policy and Support Branch Office of Knowledge Exchange, Research and Extension FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy. Tous droits r serv s. La FAO encourage la reproduction et la diffusion des informations figurant dans ce produit d'information. Les utilisations des fins non commerciales seront autoris es titre gracieux sur demande. La reproduction pour la revente ou d'autres fins commerciales, y compris des fins didactiques, pourra tre soumise des frais.
5 Les demandes d'autorisation de reproduction ou de diffusion de mat riel dont les droits d'auteur sont d tenus par la FAO et toute autre requ te concernant les droits et les licences sont adresser par courriel l'adresse ou au Chef de la Sous-Division des politiques et de l'appui en mati re de publications, Bureau de l' change des connaissances, de la recherche et de la vulgarisation FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italie. FAO 2012. ii Table of contents Acknowledgements iv Introduction v food groups v Definition and expression of nutrients vi Cooked foods ix Documentation, quality and source of data xi Recommendations for future work xi food Composition Table 1. Annex 1. Index of foods with English, French, Scientific names, and corresponding reference sources 88. Annex 2. Index of foods with French, English, Scientific names and corresponding reference sources 111.
6 Annex 3. Table of Yield factors with corresponding reference sources 133. References 140. iii Acknowledgments The authors are very grateful to the west African Health Organization (WAHO/ECOWAS) and the food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) for providing fundings for this compilation. We are also grateful to Florian Stangl for the cover design, and to him and Ruth Charrondiere to provide photos for the cover. iv Introduction This edition of the west African food Composition Table is a revised version of the food Composition Table ` Composition of Selected foods from west Africa`, which was published in September 2010. It extends and updates the number of foods and values of components through data derived from the Mali food Composition Table 2004, Nigeria, as well as analytical data from scientific articles. The foods represent average values of the collected compositional data from 9 countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal).
7 Data sources included scientific papers, theses, university reports, as well as food Composition databases. These data were supplemented by other sources of food Composition data (mostly from outside Africa) to complete the missing values, especially minerals and vitamins. It was intended to have no missing values but for some vitamins, especially vitamin A and E, data were not available and no sources were found from which to derive reliable data. In these cases, they were left blank. Most of the collected data were for raw foods. Nutrient values of cooked foods (mainly boiled foods) were calculated by using the yield factors from Bergstr m (1994), food Standards Agency (2002 UK6) and Bogn r (2002) and the nutrient retention factors from EuroFIR (V squez-Caicedo et al., 2008). The present edition includes 472 foods and 28 components. Emphasis was given to include data on food biodiversity by incorporating cultivars/varieties and underutilized foods.
8 For these foods, the country of origin of the cultivar/variety was reported, next to the food name. Analytical data were supplemented with data from other sources which are marked in italics to indicate the difference of quality. The data were compiled according to international standards for food Composition and compilation by using the INFOODS food component identifiers (Klensin et al., 1989), the FAO/INFOODS Compilation Tool (available at ) and the compilation process as outlined by Greenfield and Southgate (2003). The User database in Excel format is available on the FAO/INFOODS. webpage ( ). food groups The foods have been classified in the following food groups: 01 Cereals and their products 02 Starchy roots, tubers and their products 03 Legumes and their products 04 Vegetables and their products 05 Fruits and their products 06 Nuts, seeds and their products 07 Meat, poultry and their products 08 Eggs and their products 09 Fish and their products 10 Milk and their products 11 Fat and oils 12 Beverages 13 Miscellaneous The food codes are composed of the code of the food group and the food code within this group.
9 Foods are listed alphabetically by English name within each food group. The French name of each food is reported next to the English food name in the Table . The scientific names of the foods are listed in Annexes 1 and 2. v Definition and expression of nutrients All values, including for beverages and other liquids, are presented per 100 g edible portion. The values per nutrient have been standardized and are expressed in fixed maximal number of decimal points, no decimal points were added but values with higher decimal points were truncated to the maximal number of decimal points as indicated in the COMPONENT sheet of the Compilation Tool. The values reported are average values derived from foods with the same/similar description that have been compiled in the archival database. Table 1. Nutrients, units and corresponding INFOODS component identifier (per 100 g edible portion).
10 Nutrient Unit Analytical/determination method INFOODS. component identifier Edible portion ratio Calculated as the edible portion of the EDIBLE. total food as purchased Energy kJ, kcal Calculated according to standardized ENERC. procedure (see below). Water g Drying WATER. Protein, total g Calculated with nitrogen conversion PROT (formerly factor from analysed total nitrogen PROTCNT). (mostly Kjeldahl method). Fat, total or if missing total fat value g Mixed solvent extraction or [Soxhlet FAT or [FATCE]. for cereals, then [fat by Soxhlet] extraction for cereals]. Carbohydrate available by difference g 100 - (Water + Protein + Fat + Ash + CHOAVLDF. Fibre + Alcohol). Fibre, total dietary or if missing then g AOAC Prosky method or FIBTG or [FIBC]. [crude fibre] [Weende method]. Ash g * ASH. Calcium mg * CA. Iron mg * FE. Magnesium mg * MG. Phosphorus mg * P. Potassium mg * K. Sodium mg * NA.